on this day

Laravel 5.3.0  Released August 23, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

this week

2019-08-18 - 2019-08-24


CES 2020  January 7-10, 2020  Website  Wikipedia       

5G 5th generation cellular network. Expected to become a standard in the early 2020s  Wikipedia         

VMworld 2019  August 25-29 in San Francisco.  Website         

current year

DEF CON 27  August 8-11, 2019 at Paris, Ballys, & Planet Hollywood, Las Vegas.  Website         

Black Hat USA 2019  August 3-8, 2019.  Website         

E3 2019  June 11-13 in Las Angeles.  Website  Wikipedia       

Cisco Live San Diego 2019  June 9-13, 2019.  Website         

WWDC 2019 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference June 3-7 in San Jose, CA.  Website  Wikipedia       

PCI Express 5.0  PCI-SIG officially announced the release of the final PCI-Express 5.0 specification May 29, 2019  Wikipedia         

Google I/O 2019  May 7 - May 9 at the Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View, CA.  Website  Wikipedia       

Microsoft Build 2019  May 6-8 in Seattle, WA at the Washington State Convention Center.  Website         

F8 2019  April 30 - May 1  Website         

Avengers: Endgame  Released April 26, 2019.  IMDB         

Apple Special Event "It's show time." Held at the Steve Jobs Theater in the Apple Park campus March 25, 2019.  Wikipedia         

RSA Congerence USA 2019  March 4-8, 2019 at Moscone Center in San Francisco.  Website         

CES 2019  January 8-11, 2019.  Website  Wikipedia       


Aquaman  To be released December 21, 2018.  IMDB         

Venom  To be released October 5, 2018.  IMDB         

Microsoft Ignite 2018  September 24, 2018 - September 28, 2018.  Website         

Apple Special Event "Gather round" September 12, 2018.  Wikipedia         

VMworld 2018  August 26-30 in Las Vegas.  Website         

gamescom 2018  August 21-25 at the Koelnmesse in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti  Announced at Gamescon 2018 in Germany August 20, 2018. Released September 20, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080  Announced at Gamescon 2018 in Germany August 20, 2018. Released September 20, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070  Announced at Gamescon 2018 in Germany August 20, 2018. Released September 20, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

SIGGRAPH 2018  August 12-16 in Vancouver.  Website         

DEF CON 26  Caesar's Palace & Flamingo, Las Vegas August 9-12, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia       

Quakecon 2018  Takes place at the Gaylord Texan in Grapevine Texas August 9-12.  Website  Wikipedia       

Black Hat USA 2018  August 4-9, 2018 at Mandalay Bay in Las Vegas.  Website         

Mission Impossible - Fallout  To be released July 27, 2018.  IMDB         

Google Cloud Next '18  July 24 - July 26 at the Moscone Center in San Francisco.  Website         

Microsoft Inspire  July 15, 2018 - July 19, 2018.  Website         

Ant-Man and the Wasp  Released July 6, 2018.  IMDB         

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom  To be released June 22, 2018  IMDB         

E3 2018  June 12-14 in Las Angeles.  Website  Wikipedia       

DockerCon 2018  June 12-24 in San Francisco, California.  Website         

Cisco Live US 2018  June 10-14 in Orlando, FL.  Website         

Computex 2018  June 5 - June 9  Website  Wikipedia       

WWDC 2018  June 4-8 in San Jose, CA.  Website  Wikipedia       

Global Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Regulation in the European Union (EU) to strengthen and unify data protection. Adopted April 27, 2016. Enforceable May 25, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Solo: A Star Wars Story  To be released May 25, 2018.  IMDB         

VPNFilter Malware designed to infect routers. The FBI believes that it was created by the Russian Fancy Bear group. Estimated to have infected approximately 500,000 routers worldwide as of May 24, 2018.  Wikipedia  Ars Technica       

Deadpool 2  To be released May 18.  IMDB         

Google I/O 2018  May 8 - May 10 at the Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View, CA.  Website  Wikipedia       

Microsoft Build 2018  May 7-9.  Website         

Avengers: Infinity War  Released April 27, 2018.  IMDB         

RSA Conference 2018  April 16 - April 20.  Website         

driverless cars  Approved by the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) February 26, 2018. Regulations in effect as of April 2, 2018.  Ars Technica  DMV       

Ready Player One  Released March 30, 2018.  IMDB  Wikipedia       

iOS 11.3  Released March 29, 2018.           

Firefox 59  Released March 13, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 60  Released alongside Firefox 60 ESR May 9, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Mobile World Congress 2018 (MWC 2018)  February 26, 2018 - March 1, 2018.  Website         

Nokia 8110 4G  Announced February 25, 2018 at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2018.  Wikipedia         

Nokia 8 Sirocco An update to the Nokia 8 smartphone. Announced February 25, 2018 at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2018.  Website  Wikipedia       

Samsung Galaxy S9 Smartphone from Samsung. Announced February 25, 2018 at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2018.  Website  Wikipedia       

Sony Xperia XZ2 Smartphone from Sony. Announced February 25, 2018 at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2018.  Website         

Black Panther  Released February 16, 2018.  IMDB         

Laravel 5.6.0  Released February 7, 2018.  Laravel News  Wikipedia       

PHP 7.2.2  Released January 31, 2018.  PHP News Archive  Wikipedia       

Firefox 58  Released January 23, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 61  Released January 23, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Java SE 8 Update 161  Released January 16, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia       

CES 2018  January 8, 2018 - January 11, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  Circuit Breacker Live Stream     

Meltdown Vulnrability in Intel and ARM processors. Reported January 3, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  ZDNet  The Verge (Processor flaw exposes 20 years of devices to new attack)  The Verge (How to protect your PC against the major 'Meltdown' CPU security flaw) 

Spectre Breaks the isolation between different applications allowing an attacker to trick error-free programs. Reported January 3, 2018.  Website  Project Zero Blog  ZDNet  The Verge (Processor flaw exposes 20 years of devices to new attack)   

Wi-Fi Protected Access III (WPA3) Uses 192-bit encryption and individualized encryption for each user. Announced as a replacement to WPA2 by the Wi-Fi Alliance January 2018.  Wikipedia         


PCI Express 4.0  Officially announced June 8, 2017. First devices expected to be released by the end of 2017.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 57.0.3  Released December 28, 2017.  Wikipedia         

The Shape of Water  Released December 22, 2017.  IMDB         

Amazon Echo Spot Smart alarm clock from Amazon. Announced September 27, 2017. Released December 19, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

iMac Pro

  • 5K display (5120x2880)
  • 500 nits brightness
CPU:8-Core, 10-Core, or 18-Core
RAM:32GB, 64GB, or 128GB
SSD1TB, 2TB, or 4TB
GPU:Radeon Pro Vega 56 or Radeon Pro Vega 64
 Announced June 5, 2017. Released December 14, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 57.0.2  Released December 7, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 57.0.1  Released November 29, 2017.  Wikipedia         

OnePlus 5T (OP5T) Smartphone from OnePlus. First released November 21, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 57 (Firefox Quantum) Released on November 14, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Xbox One X (Project Scorpio) Released November 7, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

iPhone X Smartphone from Apple.

  • 149.59 mm (5.8 in)
  • OLED
  • 2436 x 1125
  • 458 ppi
CPU: A11 Bionic chip
Memory:3 GB RAM
Storage: 64 GB or 256 GB
  • Rear camera: Dual 12 MP
    • Wide-angle f/1.8
    • Telephoto f/2.4
  • Front camera: 7 MP, f/2.2
 Announced September 12, 2017 at an Apple Special Event. Per-order October 27, 2017. Available November 3, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA with 8 GBs of memory. Released November 2, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Amazon Echo Plus Smart speaker from Amazon. Announced September 27, 2017. Released October 31, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

Amazon Echo (2017) Smart speaker from Amazon Announced September 27, 2017. Released October 31, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

Firefox 56.0.2  Released October 26, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Fall Creators Update (Version 1709) Released October 17, 2017.  Windows Blogs  Wikipedia       

Surface Book 2 Laptop from Microsoft. Announced October 17, 2017. Available for pre-order beginning November 9, 2017. Shipping November 16, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Windows Blogs     

Key Reinstallation AttaACK (KRACK)    Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 56.0.1  Released October 9, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Google event  October 4, 2017.           

Google Pixel 2 Smartphone from Google. Announced October 4, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

GoPro Hero 6  Released September 28, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

Firefox 56  Released September 28, 2017.  Wikipedia         

iOS 11.0.1  Released September 26, 2017.  Apple Support  9to5Mac       

Microsoft Ignite 2017 Orlando, FL. September 25, 2017 September 29, 2017.  Website         

macOS High Sierra (macOS 10.13) Released September 25, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

iPhone 8 Smartphone from Apple. Announced September 12, 2017 at an Apple Special Event. Pre-order September 15, 2017. Available September 22, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  MacRumors     

USB 3.2 Specification for USB. Maximum transfer speed of 2GBps (gigabytes per second). Doubles the speed of existing USB Type-C cables. Published September 22, 2017.  USB-IF  Tom's Hardware  Ars Technica     

iOS 11  Released September 19, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

watchOS 4  Released September 19, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Samsung Galaxy Note 8 Smartphone from Samsung.

  • 160 mm (6.3 in)
  • QHD+ Super AMOLED
  • 2960 x 1440 (1440p)
  • 521 ppi
  • Global: Exynos 8895
  • North America: Snapdragon 835
  • Global: 64 GB, 128 GB, or 256 GB
  • North America: 64 GB
  • microSDXC, expandable up to 256 GB
  • Rear camera: Dual 12 MP
    • Wide-angle f/1.7
    • Telephoto f/2.4
  • Front camera: 8 MP, f/1.7B
 Announced August 23, 2017. Released September 15, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Project Honolulu Web-based server management GUI. Announced September 14, 2017.  Ars Technica         

Apple Special Event "Let's meet at our place." First event to be held at the Steve Jobs Theater in the Apple Park Campus. September 12, 2017.  Wikipedia         

AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1900X Zen CPU from AMD. Released August 31, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Laravel 5.5.0  Released August 30, 2017.  Laravel News  Wikipedia       

Essential Phone (officially (aka: Phone, PH-1) Announced May 30, 2017. Releasead August 25, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Android Oreo (Android O)  First preview available March 23, 2017. Officially available in beta May 17, 2017. Name unveiled August 21, 2017. Released August 21, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Ars Technica     

ZenFone 4

  • 139.7 mm (5.5 in)
  • 1920 x 1080
  • 600 nits
  • Qualcomm Snapdragon 660
  • Qualcomm Snapdragon 630
Memory: 4 GB/6 GB LPDDR3 RAM
  • 64 GB
  • Micro SD Card up to 2 TB
  • Rear camera: Dual 12 MP + 8 MP
  • Front camera: 8 MP
Dimensions:H: 155.36 mm W: 75.24 mm D: 7.49 mm
Weight:165 g
  • USB 2.0 Type-C
  • 3.5mm audio jack
 Announced August 17, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

ZenFone 4 Pro

  • 139.7 mm (5.5 in)
  • 1920 x 1080
  • 500 nits
CPU: Qualcomm Snapdragon 835
GPU: Adreno 530
Memory:6 GB LPDDR3 RAM
  • 64 GB, 128 GB
  • Micro SD Card up to 2 TB
  • Rear camera: Dual 12 MP + 8 MP
  • Front camera: 8 MP
Battery:3600 mAh
Dimensions:H: 156.9 mm W: 75.6 mm D: 7.6 mm
Weight:175 g
  • USB 2.0 Type-C
  • 3.5mm audio jack
 Announced August 17, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nokia 8 Smartphone from Nokia. Announced August 16, 2017. Released September 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1950X Zen CPU from AMD. 16 core, 32 thread, 3.4GHz base clock, 4.0GHz boost clock, $999 MSRP. Released August 10, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Ars Technica     

AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1920X Zen CPU from AMD. 12 core, 24 thread, 3.5GHz base clock, 4.0GHz boost clock, $799 MSRP. Released August 10, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Ars Technica     

Firefox 55.0.1  Released August 10, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 55  Released August 8, 2017.  Wikipedia         

SIGGRAPH 2017  July 30, 2017 - August 3, 2017 at the Los Angeles Convention Center.  Event Website  Main Website  Wikipedia     

AMD Ryzen 3 1300X Zen architecture CPU from AMD in the Ryzen family. Released July 27, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Press Release     

AMD Ryzen 3 1200 Zen architecture CPU from AMD in the Ryzen family. Released July 27, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Press Release     

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) An IPv6 address is 128 bits long over IPv4's 32 bits. Every 4 bits is represented by a single hexadecimal digit; for a total of 32 hexadecimal values. Not case sensitive. Network portion identified by a prefix (/64). Can range from /0 to /128. Has three address types: Unicast, Multicast, and Anycast. Three address scopes: global, unique-local, and link-local. Draft standard in RFC 2460 December 1998. Standardized in RFC 8200 July 14, 2017.  Wikipedia  RFC 2460  RFC 8200  Internet Society   

Windows Server Insider Preview Build 16237 First Windows Server Insider Preview build available to Windows Insiders. Released July 13, 2017.  Windows Blogs         

Vega GPU family from AMD. Announced at CES 2017 January 5, 2017. First GPU released as the Radeon Vega Frontier Edition July 1, 2017.   Website  Wikipedia  Press Release     

AMD Radeon Vega Frontier Edition First graphics card in the Vega architecture family from AMD. Announced May 16, 2017. Available for pre-order June 27, 2017. Released July 1, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Tom's Hardware  Newegg   

Firefox 54.0.1  Released June 29, 2017.  Wikipedia         

AMD Ryzen Threadripper Line of microprocessors in the Ryzen family. To be released summer 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Alienware Area 51 (2017) Computer from Dell. First OEM to use AMD Threadripper. Announced at E3 2017 June 12, 2017. Available for pre-order June 27, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  PC World     

Petya (aka: NotPetya, GoldenEye) Malware. Seen as early as March 2016. Major attack targeting Ukraine occurred June 27, 2017.  Wikipedia         

AMD EPYC Family of server chips from AMD based on the Zen microarchitecture. Announced May 16, 2017. Released June 20, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

E3 2017  June 13, 2017 - June 15, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 54  Released June 13, 2017.  Wikipedia         

WWDC 2017  June 5-9 at the McEnery Convention Center in San Jose.  Website  Wikipedia       

Computex 2017  May 30 - June 3  Website  Wikipedia       

Intel Core i9 Family of microprocessors from Intel. Announced at Computex 2017 May 30, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

Intel Core i9-7980XE CPU from Intel. Announced at Computex 2017 May 30, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 53.0.3  Released May 19, 2017.  Wikipedia         

AMD Radeon RX 560 GPU from AMD. Released May 18, 2017.  Website  OC3D.net       

Google I/O 2017  May 17 - May 19 at the Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View, California.  Website         

NVIDIA GeForce GT 1030 Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released May 17, 2017  Website  Wikipedia       

WannaCry (aka: WannaCrypt) Ransomware worm that originated from leaked National Security Agency (NSA) tools. Attacked unpatched Windows computers in over 150 countries including computers in the National Health Service (NHS) on May 12, 2017.   NHS Digital  PC World  New York Times  Wikipedia   

CORSAIR DOMINATOR PLATINUM Special Edition Torque  Released May 11, 2017.  Website         

Microsoft Fluent Design System (aka: Neon) New interface for Windows 10. Announced May 11, 2017  Website         

NVIDIA Tesla V100 First Volta GPU from NVIDIA. Announced May 10, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.2  Released May 5, 2017.  IMDB  Wikipedia       

Firefox 53.0.2  Released May 5, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 53.0.1  Released April 27, 2017.  Wikipedia         

EVGA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti SC2 GAMING  Released April 24, 2017.  Newegg         

EVGA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti SC Black Edition GAMING  Released April 24, 2017.  Newegg         

AMD Radeon Pro Duo (2017) Professional GPU from AMD. Announced April 24, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Press Release     

Samsung Galaxy S8 Smartphone from Samsung Announced March 29, 2017. Released April 21, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 53  Released April 19, 2017.  Wikipedia         

AMD Radeon RX 580 GPU from AMD. Released April 18, 2017  Website  Wikipedia       

Apple Park (aka: Apple Campus 2, Apple Spaceship Campus) Opening to employees in April 2017.  Wikipedia  Apple Press Release       

Creators Update (aka: Redstone 2 (RS2)) Codename for the third major update build of Windows 10. Early download available April 5, 2017. Released April 11, 2017.  Wikipedia         

AMD Ryzen 5 1600X (6 cores, 12 threads, 3.6 GHz, 4.0 GHz boost, 95w TDP, 16 MB L3 cache) CPU from AMD. Released April 11, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA Titan Xp GPU from NVIDIA. Released April 6, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 52.0.2  Released alongside Firefox 52.0.2 ESR March 28, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Apple File System (APFS) File system from Apple to replace HFS and HFS+. Quietly announced at WWDC June 13, 2016. Introduced to iOS devices in iOS 10.3 March 27, 2017.  Wikipedia         

3D XPoint  Announced by Intel and Micron in July 2015. First released in the Intel DC P4800X March 19, 2017  Wikipedia         

Firefox 52.0.1  Released alongside Firefox 52.0.1 ESR March 17, 2017.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti GPU from NVIDIA. Announced March 1, 2017. Released March 10, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Overclock3D     

ASUS ROG Crosshair VI Hero (AM4 AMD X370 SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.1 USB 3.0 ATX) Motherboard from ASUS. Released March 9, 2017.  Newegg         

GIGABYTE GA-AB350-Gaming (rev. 1.0) (AM4 AMD B350 SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.1 HDMI ATX) Motherboard from GIGABYTE. Released March 8, 2017.  Website  Newegg       

MSI X370 GAMING PRO CARBON (AM4 AMD X370 SATA 6Gb/s HDMI ATX) Motherboard from MSI. Released March 8, 2017.  Website  Newegg       

ASUS Prime X370-Pro (AM4 AMD X370 SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.1 USB 3.0 HDMI ATX) Motherboard from ASUS.  Released March 7, 2017.  Newegg         

ASUS PRIME B350-PLUS (AM4 AMD B350 SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.1 USB 3.0 HDMI ATX) Motherboard form ASUS. Released March 7, 2017.  Newegg         

Firefox 52 (ESR) Released March 7, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Nintendo Switch Video game console from Nintendo. Released March 3, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Wired     

Zen Microarchitecture codename from AMD. First processors released under the Ryzen CPU March 2, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Ryzen (codename: Summit Ridge) CPU family from AMD. Announced February 22, 2017. First relesed March 2, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

AMD Ryzen 7 1800x CPU from AMD. Released March 2, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

AMD Ryzen 7 1700x CPU from AMD. Released March 2, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

AMD Ryzen 7 1700 CPU from AMD. Released March 2, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

LG G6 Smartphone from LG. Announced February 26, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Acer Predator 21 X 21' laptop from Acer with two NVIDIA GTX 1080s and a $8,999 price tag. To be released Feburary 2017.  Website  The Verge       

Commercial Resupply Services Mission 10 (CRS-10) SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket carried the Dragon spacecraft to low-Earth orbit to deliver critical cargo to the International Space Station for NASA. Launched from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida February 19, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CSA+)  Released February 15, 2017.  Website         

Sony Xperia XZ Premium

  • 139 mm (5.5 in)
  • 3840 x 2160
  • 807 ppi
CPU: Snapdragon 835
GPU: Adreno 540
Memory: 4 GB LPDDR4X RAM
  • 64 GB
  • microSDXC up to 256GB
  • Rear camera: 19 MP
  • Front camera: 13 MP
Battery:3230 mAh
Dimensions:H: 156 mm (6.1 in) W: 77 mm (3.0 in) D: 7.9 mm (0.31 in)
Weight:195 g
Ports: USB 3.1 Gen 1 Type-C
 First released Febuary 2, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 51.0  Released on January 24, 2017  Wikipedia         

Laravel 5.4.0  Released January 24, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

The Internet Health Report Open source documnet from Mozilla explaining the health of the internet with data from multiple sources. Announced January 19, 2017.  Website  Mizilla Blog       

Project Valerie Triple monitor laptop from Razor. Announced at CES on January 5, 2017  Website  PCMag       

Intel Core i7 7700K Kaby Lake CPU from Intel. 4 Cores, 8 Threads, 8M Cache, up to 4.50 GHz, 91W TDP Released January 3, 2017.  Intel ARK  Wikipedia       

IBM Db2 DB2(tm) and Db2(tm) refer to database-server products developed by IBM. These products all support the relational model, but in recent years, some products have been extended to support object-relational features and non-relational structures like JSON and XML. Successor to the 1980s-introducded DB2. Announced in 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       


Rogue One: A Star Wars Story  Released December 16, 2016.  IMDB         

Super Mario Run Mobile game made by Nintendo. Released December 15 2016.    Wikipedia       

AirPods Wireless headphones made by Apple. Released December 13, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 50  Released November 15, 2016  Wikipedia         

Ashes of the Singularity: Escalation Expansion to the original game; Ashes of the Singularity. Released November 10, 2016. Merged into the base game February 16, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Steam     

Xiaomi Mi Mix Smartphone from Xiaomi. Released November 4, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia  CNET     

AMD Radeon Pro WX 7100 Professional GPU from AMD. Released November 2016.  Wikipedia         

Titanfall 2  Released October 28, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Apple Watch Nike + Model of the Series 2 Apple Watch. Released October 28, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released October 25, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050Ti Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released October 25, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Pixel Smartphone designed by Google and manufactured by HTC. Released October 20, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Dirty Change on Write (Dirty COW) (aka: CVE-2016-5195) Linux kernel vulnerability.   Linux.com  Red Hat       

Windows Server 2016 Network operating system from Microsoft. RTM September 26, 2016.General availability October 12, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Sierra (macOS 10.12) Released September 20, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 49  Released September 20, 2016.  Wikipedia         

iPhone 7 Smartphone made by Apple. Announced September 7, 2016. Released September 16, 2016  Website  Wikipedia       

Apple Watch Series 2 Smartwatch from Apple.  Announced September 7, 2016. Released September 16, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia  Press Release     

Dell Technologies Parent company of Dell created after the merger of Dell Inc. and EMC Corporation. Founded September 7, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Kaby Lake Microarchitecture codename from Intel. Announced August 30, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Laravel 5.3.0  Released August 23, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Android Nougat (aka: Android N, Android 7.0) Seventh major version of the Android. Released August 22, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Galaxy Note 7 Smartphone from Samsung. Recalled for its potential exploding battery. Released August 19, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Duo Video chat app from Google. Announced May 18, 2016. Available for Android and iOS August 16, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia  CNET     

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 3GB Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released August 18, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Radeon RX 460 GPU from AMD. Released August 8, 2016.    Wikipedia       

Radeon RX 470 GPU from AMD. Released August 4, 2016.    Wikipedia       

Anniversary Update (aka: Redstone) Update for Windows 10. Released August 2, 2016.  Wikipedia  Windows Blogs       

Xbox One S  Available August 2, 2016.  Website         

Firefox 48  Released August 2, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Gigafactory 1 Lithium-ion battery factory from Tesla. Open July 29, 2016.  Wikipedia  The Verge       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 6GB Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released July 19, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Pokémon Go Mobile augmented-reality game for iOS and Android. Released July 6, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Transport Layer Security 1.3 (TLS 1.3)  Working draft as of July 2016.    Wikipedia       

Radeon RX 480 GPU from AMD. Announced May 31, 2016. Released June 29, 2016.  Website  Anand Tech       

Bluetooth 5 Increased signal range to 40 meters (~130 ft.) and offers playback on multiple devices. Announced June 16, 2016. First available in the Samasun Galaxy S8 April 21, 2017. Later availabe on the iPhone 8 September 22, 2017.    Wikipedia  YouTube (MKBHD)     

OnePlus 3  Announced June 14, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

E3 2016  June 14, 2016 - June 16, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released June 10, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 47  Released June 7, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Intel Core i7-6950X Extreme Edition First 10-core desktop CPU from Intel. Announced May 30, 2016.  Intel ARK  Engadget       

ZenFone 3 Smartphone made by ASUS. Announced at Computex on May 30, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 GPU from NVIDIA. Released May 27, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Overwatch    Website  Wikipedia       

Allo Messaging app from Google powered by machine learning. Announced May 18, 2016.  CNET         

AMD Radeon Pro Duo (2016) Professional GPU from AMD. Announced May 14, 2016. Released April 26, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia (Radeon Pro)  Wikipedia (RX 300 series)  Press Release   

Firefox 46  Released on April 26, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Ubuntu 16.04  Released April 21, 2016.  Ubuntu Insights         

LG G5 Smartphone from LG. Announced February 21, 2016. Released April 8, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Intel Core i7-6900K Broadwell-E CPU from Intel. 8 Cores, 16 Threads, 20M Cache, up to 3.70 GHz, 140w TDP. Released Q2, 2016.  Intel ARK  Wikipedia       

Intel Core i7-6850K Broadwell-E CPU from Intel. 6 Cores, 12 Threads, 15M Cache, up to 3.80 GHz, 140w TDP. Released Q2, 2016.  Intel ARK  Wikipedia       

Pascal GPU microarchitecture from NVIDIA. Named after Blaise Pascal. First introduced April 2016 with the GP100 chip.  Wikipedia         

iPhone SE  Released March 31, 2016.  Website  Apple Press Info  Wikipedia     

Ashes of the Singularity Real-time strategy game. Released March 31, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia  Steam     

dormant cyber pathogen What Michael Ramos, the San Bernardino County district attorney, claims was on a terrorist's iPhone. Used in a hearing for the San Bernardino iPhone case on March 22, 2016.  Ars Technica         

CareKit Open-source framework from Apple.  Released March 21, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

Galaxy S7 Smartphone from Samsung. Released March 11, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 45  Released March 8, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Vulkan Graphics API from the Khronos Group. Introduced February 16, 2016  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 44  Released January 26, 2016.  Wikipedia         

Intel Xeon E3-1575M v5 8M Cache, 3.00 GHz. Mobile CPU from Intel. Released January 2016.  Intel ARK  Wikipedia       


Firefox 43  Released December 15, 2015.  Wikipedia         

CompTIA A+ 220-901 & 220-902  Released December 15, 2015.  Website         

PHP 7.0.0  Released December 3, 2015.  PHP News Archive  Wikipedia       

Gear VR VR headset developed by Samsung and Oculus. Released November 27, 2015.  Wikipedia         

Microsoft Lumia 950 Smartphone made by Microsoft. Released November 20, 2015.  Wikipedia         

Threshold 2 (TH2) (aka: Cumulative Update for Windows 10 Version 1511 for x64-based Systems, November Update, (KB3118754), or Build version 10.0.10586.) First major update to Windows 10. Released November 12, 2015  Wikipedia         

Steam Machine (aka: Steam Box) Game console from Valve. Released November 10, 2015.  Wikipedia         

OnePlus X  Released October 29, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nexus 5X Smartphone manufactured by LG. First released October 22, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Alphabet Inc. Parent company of Google. Google was recatagorized under the new company on October 2, 2015  Website  Wikipedia       

AMD FirePro W7170M  Released October 2, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nexus 6P Smartphone manufactured by Huawei. First released September 29, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

iPhone 6S  Released September 25, 2015.  Wikipedia         

Intel Xeon E3-1505M v5 8M Cache, 2.80 GHz. Mobile CPU from Intel. Releaseed September 2015.  Intel ARK  Wikipedia       

Radeon R9 Nano  Released August 27, 2015.  Wikipedia         

Galaxy S6 Edge+ Smartphone from Samsung. Released August 21, 2015.  Wikipedia         

Skylake Microarchitecture codename from Intel. Announced August 5, 2015.  Wikipedia         

Windows 10 Codename: Threshold. Version: 10.0.10240. Initially released to the public July 29, 2015.  Download  Wikipedia       

SMB 3.1.1  Introduced with Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016.  Wikipedia         

Intel Optane Family of storage and memory devices from Intel using 3D XPoint. Introduced at IDF 2015  Website  Intel Newsroom       

Radeon R9 Fury  Released July 14, 2015.  Wikipedia         

OnePlus 2  Released July 28, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Radeon R9 Fury X  Released June 24, 2015.  Wikipeddia         

Amazon Echo  Widely available June 23, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Radeon R9 390X  Released June 18, 2015.  Wikipedia         

Weave Communications layer for IoT devices. Developed by Google. Announced May 28, 2015.  Website  Ars Technica       

Facebook Instant Articles  Released May 15, 2015.           

HTTP version 2 (HTTP/2)  Published as RFC 7540 May 14, 2015.  Wikipedia  RFC 7540  IETF     

JSON Web Encryption (JWE) Encryption using JSON-based data structures. Published May 2015.  RFC 7516         

Galaxy S6 Smartphone from Samsung. Released April 10, 2015.  Wikipedia         

One M9 Smartphone from HTC. Released April 10, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Microsoft Lumia 640  Released March 2, 2015.           

CompTIA Network+  Released February 28, 2015.  Website         


HyperText Markup Language 5 (HTML 5)  First released as a standard October 28, 2014.  Wikipedia         

Yosemite (OS X 10.10) Released October 16, 2014.  Wikipedia         

iPhone 6  Released September 19, 2014.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 GPU from NVIDIA. Released September 18, 2014.  Website  Wikipedia       

Moto 360 Smartwatch made by Motorola that runs Android Wear. First generation released September 5, 2014.  Website  Wikipedia       

USB Type-C Reversible 24-pin connector. Standardized August 12, 2014.  Wikipedia  AnandTech       

LGA 2011-v3 (aka: Socket R3, LGA 2011-3) CPU socket used with Intel microprocessors including Haswell-E (desktop, X99 chipset) and Haswell-EP (Xeon E5 v3) CPUs. Supports DDR4 memory. Released August 2014.  Wikipedia         

Action Center (Formerly: Charms bar) Offers quick acces to settings and notifications. First introduced with Windows Phone 8.1.  Wikipedia         

Google Cardboard VR headset made out of cardboard that uses a smartphone as the display. Released June 25, 2014.  Website  Wikipedia       

Swift Programming language developed by Apple. Announced June 2, 2014.  Wikipedia  Website       

CompTIA Security+  Released May 1, 2014.  Website         

OnePlus One  Released April 23, 2014.  Website  Wikipedia       

Windows 8.1 Version 6.3.9600. Released April 8, 2014.  Wikipedia         

Radeon R9 295X2  Released Apr 8, 2014.  Wikipedia         

Android Wear Variation of android for wearable devices. First released March 18, 2014.  Wikipedia  Website       

Titanfall  Released March 11, 2014.  Wikipedia         

Phil Spencer Head of Microsoft's Xbox division. Took the roll March 31, 2014.  Wikipedia  Time       

LGA 2011-1 (aka: Socket R2) CPU socket used with Intel microprocessors including Ivy Bridge-EX (Xeon E7 v2) and Haswell-EX (Xeon E7 v3) CPUs. Successor of LGA 1567. Released February 2014.  Wikipedia         

SoftEther VPN (Software Ethernet) First released January 4, 2014.  Website  Wikipedia       

Steamroller Microarchitecture from AMD            

Socket FM2+ (PGA-ZIF, 906 pins, aka: FM2b) CPU socket used by AMD Steamroller microarchitecture Kaveri and Godavari APUs. Supports Socket FM2 CPUs. Released January 2014.  Wikipedia         


AllJoyn  First released December 21, 2013.  Wikipedia         

OnePlus Chinese smartphone manufacturer. Founded December 16, 2013.  Website  Wikipedia       

SteamOS  Initially released December 13, 2013.  Wikipedia         

IEEE 802.11ac Wireless standard that operates at 5GHz. Transfer speed of at least 1Gbps. Developed from 2008 to 2013. ANSI approved December 11, 2013. he first 802.11ac products from 2013 are referred to as Wave 1, and the newer higher bandwidth products introduced in 2016 are referred to as Wave 2.  Wikipedia         

Xbox One  First released November 22, 2013.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nokia Lumia 2520 Windows-based tablet from Nokia. Released November 21, 2013.  Wikipedia         

Radeon R9 290X  Released Oct 24, 2013.  Wikipedia         

SMB 3.0.2 Allowed SMB1 to be optionally disabled for increased security. Introduced with Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2.  Wikipedia         

Broadwell Microarchitecture codename from Intel. Announced September 10, 2013 but dellayed formal unvailing until August 11, 2014. First released September 5, 2014.  Wikipedia         

Nokia Lumia 1020  Released July 26, 2013.  Wikipedia  iFixit        

AMD FX-9590 (8-Core 4.7 GHz Socket AM3+ 220W) Released July 6, 2013.  Wikipedia         

USB 3.1 Gen 1 Preserves the existing SuperSpeed transfer rate under a new label USB 3.1 Gen 1, and introduces a new SuperSpeed+ transfer mode, USB 3.1 Gen 2 with the maximum data signaling rate to 10 Gbit/s (1250 MB/s, twice the rate of USB 3.0). Released in July 2013.  Website  Wikipedia       

High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) (aka: H.265 or MPEG-H Part 2) Video compression standard. Formally published by the ITU-T on June 7, 2013.  Wikipedia         

Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series of network switch from Cisco. Announced June 4, 2013. Released July 2013.  Website  Wikipedia  Cisco Blog     

Haswell Microarchitecture codename from Intel. Announced June 4, 2013.  Wikipedia         

Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) Used to obtain the revocation status of digital certificates in public keys. Alternative to Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) that enables clients to request and receive the electronic status of digital certificates automatically in real-time. Described in RFC 6960 June 2013.  Wikipedia  RFC 6960       

Cisco Catalyst 2960X-24PD-L 24-port network switch from Cisco. Released May 24, 2013.  Website         

Cisco Catalyst 2960X-24PS-L 24-port network switch from Cisco. Released May 24, 2013.  Website         

Cisco Catalyst 2960X-24PSQ-L 24-port network switch from Cisco. Released May 24, 2013.  Website         

Cisco Catalyst 2960X-24TD-L 24-port network switch from Cisco. Released May 24, 2013.  Website         

Cisco Catalyst 2960X-24TS-L 24-port network switch from Cisco. Released May 24, 2013.  Website         

Cisco Catalyst 2960X-24TS-LL 24-port network switch from Cisco. Released May 24, 2013.  Website         

Cisco Catalyst 2960X-48FPD-L 24-port network switch from Cisco. Released May 24, 2013.  Website         

Docker Allows you to package an application with all of its dependencies into a standardized unit for software development.   Website         

Volta Codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by NVIDIA. Announced March 2013.  Website  Wikipedia       

Crysis 3  First released February 19, 2013.  Website  Wikipedia       

Vine  Officially launched January 24, 2013.  Wikipedia         

Resilio Sync (formerly BitTorrent Sync) Proprietary peer-to-peer file synchronization tool. Anounced January 24, 2013. Renamed to Resilio Sync on June 1, 2016 when it became managed under Resilio Inc.   Website  Wikipedia       

LGA 1150 (LGA, 1150 pins, aka: Socket H3) CPU socket used with Intel microprocessors based on Haswell and Broadwell microarchitectures. Released in 2013.  Wikipedia         


Titan Supercomputer from Cray. Operational October 29, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Windows 8  Released October 26, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Windows RT Version of Windows for ARM processors. Released October 26, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Shutdown /o Go to the advanced boot options menu and restart the computer. Must be used with /r option. Introduced in Windows 8.  MSDN  The Windows Club       

FX-6300 CPU from AMD. Released October 23, 2012  CPU World         

Groove Music    Website  Player  Wikipedia     

Socket FM2 (PGA-ZIF, 904 pins) CPU socket used by AMD Trinity and Richland APUs as well as Athlon X2 and Athlon X4. Released September 27, 2012.  Wikipedia         

SMB 3.0 (previously named SMB 2.2) Introduced with Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012.  Wikipedia         

NIST SP 800 30 framework Guide for conducting risk assessments. Rev. 1 published September 2012.  Website  Wikipedia       

Resilient File System (ReFS)  Released with Windows Server 2012 August 1, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Galaxy S III Smartphone from Samsung. First released May 29, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Piledriver Microarchitecture from AMD. Released May 15, 2012.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 690  Released April 29, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Ivy Bridge Microarchitecture codename from Intel. First released April 29, 2012.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680  Released March 22, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Google Apps Vault Add-on for Google Apps that lets you retain, archive, search, and export your organization's email and chat messages for your eDiscovery and compliance needs.   Website  Google for Wrok Blog       

Radeon HD 7970  Released January 9, 2012.  Wikipedia         

Bower "A package manager for the web". Created in 2012.  Website  GitHub  Twitter     

Latitude E6530 Laptop from Dell.   Website  Support  Wikipedia     


Minecraft  Released November 18, 2011.  Wikipeddia         

LGA 2011 (LGA, 2011 pins, aka: Socket R, LGA 2011-0) CPU socket used with high-end Intel microprocessors. The list includes Sandy Bridge-E (desktop Core i7-38xx, -39xx) and -EP (Xeon E5) as well as Ivy Bridge-E (desktop Core i7-48xx and -49xx) and -EP processors (Xeon E5 v2). Released on 14 November 2011. Replaced LGA 1366.  Wikipedia         

Droid Razr  First released November 11, 2011.  Wikipedia         

iCloud Cloud storage and synchronization from Apple. Launched October 12, 2011.  Wikipedia  Apple (System Status)       

FX Microprocessor series from AMD. First released October 12, 2011.  Wikipedia         

Buldozer Microarchitecture from AMD. Released October 12, 2011.  Wikipedia         

ASUS Zenbook UX21E Twelve-inch ultrabook from ASUS. First released October 12, 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

ASUS Zenbook UX31E Thirteen-inch ultrabook from ASUS. First released October 12, 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

Morto Worm allowing unauthorized access. First detected on August 27, 2011   Microsoft         

RTLinux Hard realtime RTOS microkernel that runs the entire Linux operating system as a fully preemptive process. Discontinued August 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

Lion (OS X 10.7) Released July 20, 2011.  Wikipedia         

SmallBasic Programming language and IDE developed by Microsoft. Announced in October 2008 and released on July 12, 2011.  Wikipedia  Website  TechNet  Microsoft Blog   

Manjaro Linux distribution based on Arch. First released July 10, 2011  Website  Wikipeida       

Kotlin Programming language. Released July, 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

Socket FM1 (PGA-ZIF, 905 pins) CPU socket used by AMD Llano processors such as early A-series APUs and Athlon II. Released July 2011. Succeeded by Socket FM2.  Wikipedia         

Chrome OS Operating system developed by Google. Based on Linux. Uses the Chrome web browser as the user interface. First released June 15, 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

Laravel PHP web framework developed by Taylor Otwell. First released as a beta June 9, 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 590  Released March 24, 2011.  Wikipedia         

Elementary OS Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. First released March 31, 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 4.0  Released March 22, 2011.  Wikipedia         

Crysis 2  First released March 22, 2011.  Website  Wikipedia       

Windows 7 Service Pack 1 (Version 6.1.7601) Released February 22, 2011.  Wikipedia         

Dynamic Memory Feature in Microsoft Hyper-V that let virtual machines use more physical memory than assigned. Introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1).  TechNet         

Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1)  Released February 9, 2011  Wikipedia         

Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture codename from Intel. First released January 5, 2011.  Wikipedia         

Chocolatey Package manager for Windows.   Website         

Sequoia Supercomputer from IBM Installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2011.  Wikipedia         

K computer Supercomputer from Fujitsu. Operational June 2011.  Wikipedia         

LGA 1155 (LGA, 1155 pins, aka: Socket H2) CPU socket used with Intel microprocessors based on Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge microarchitectures. Released January 2011. Superseded by the LGA 1150.  Wikipedia         

hub Basic network connectivity device that repeats any signal it receives on one port to all other ports. Operates at OSI layer 1. Succeeded by switches. As of 2011, connecting network segments by repeaters or hubs is deprecated by IEEE 802.3.  Wikipedia         

active hub (deprecated) Type of hub that amplifies and cleans up the signal before broadcasting to all other ports. Deprecated by IEEE 802.3 as of 2011.  Wikipedia         

10BASE2 (aka: cheapernet, thin Ethernet, thinnet, and thinwire) Variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable terminated with BNC connectors and T connectors. Deprecated by IEEE 802.3 as of 2011.  Wikipedia         

chargeback Policy used by IT departments to allocate and/or bill the costs associated with each department's or division's usage. As of 2011, the chargeback mechanisms are often controversial in organizations.  Wikipedia         


AirPrint Allows Apple devices running macOS or iOS to wirelessly print to a compatible printer or print server. First released November 22, 2010.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580  Released November 9, 2010.  Wikipedia         

Firesheep    Wikipedia  codebutler       

AngularJS (aka: Angular) Web framework based on JavaScript and maintained by Google. First released October 20, 2010.  Wikipedia  W3Schools       

Knockout JavaScript web framework. First released July 5, 2010.  Website  Wikipedia       

Unity Shell for the GNOME desktop environment from Canonical. First released June 9, 2010.  Website  Wikipedia       

Stuxnet Worm that targets PLCs. Discovered in June 2010.  Wikipedia         

Kin Failed phone attempt from Microsoft. Manufactured by Sharp. First released in May 2010.  Wikipedia         

HAF X Computer case made by Cooler Master. Released May 2010.  Website  YouTube (Cooler Master)       

Xiaomi Inc. Chinese electronics company. Founded April 6, 2010.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480  Released March 26, 2010.  Wikipedia         

Microsoft Azure Cloud solution from Microsoft. Initially released February 1, 2010.  Website  Wikipedia       

iPad Tablet made by Apple. First announced January 27, 2010.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 3.6  Released January 21, 2010.  Wikipedia         

Node Package Manager (npm) Package manager for Node.js. First released January 12, 2010.  Website  Wikipedia       

Westmere (Formerly Nehalem-C) Microarchitecture codename from Intel. First releasaed January 7, 2010.  Wikipedia         

Microsoft Virtual Academy (MVA) Free Microsoft Training Delivered by Experts.   Website  Twitter  Facebook     


IEEE 802.11n-2009 (aka: 802.11n) Wireless standard that can operate at 2.4GHz or 5GHz and is backward compatible with earlier standards. Maximum transfer rate of 600Mbps. Published October 29, 2009.  Wikipedia         

Windows 7 (Version 6.1.7600) Initially released October 22, 2009.  Wikipedia         

HomeGroup Allows Windwos users to share files across computers on a home network. Introduced with Windows 7  Website  Wikipedia  Netacad     

DirectAccess Automatically establishes a secure bi-directional IPSec connection. Introduced with Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2.  Website  Wikipedia       

Cisco Unified Computer System (Cisco USC) Line of scalable servers form Cisco. Announced March 2009. First installed September 1, 2009.  Wikipedia  Cisco Press Release       

Level 10 Computer case made by Thermaltake and designed by BMW. Released August 2009.  Amazon         

Firefox 3.5  Released June 30, 2009.  Wikipedia         

Simple Network Management Protocol version 3 (SNMPv3) Authenticates and encrypts packets between management devices. Defined in RFC 5590 June 2009.  Wikipedia  RFC 5590       

Cyanogen Mobile operating system based on Android. Cyanogen OS is what comes pre-installed on phones such as the OnePlus One. CyanogenMod is a replacement firmware that installs on top of Android. Fist released July 1, 2009.  Website  Twitter       

Node.js Open-source, cross-platform runtime environment created by Ryan Dahl. First released release May 27, 2009.  Website  Wikipedia       

ExpressCard 2.0 Supports PCIe 2.0 x1 or USB 3.0 at 5Gbps. Standardized March 4, 2009.  Wikipedia         

Socket AM3 (941 pins) CPU socket for AMD processors. Supports DDR3 memory. Compatible with AM3 and AM3+ processors including Phenom II, Athlon II, Sempron, Opteron 138x. Released February 9, 2009 as the successor to Socket AM2+.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 295  Released January 8, 2009.  Wikipedia         

Psyb0t (aka: Network Bluepill) Computer worm thought to be unique in that it can infect routers and high-speed modems. Discovered in January 2009.  Wikipedia         

LGA 1156 (LGA, 1156 pins, aka: Socket H, H1) CPU socket used with Intel microprocessors based on Nehalem and Westmere microarchitectures. Integrates the features traditionally located on a northbridge within the processor itself. Released in 2009. Superseded by the LGA 1155 socket. Discontinued in 2012.  Wikipedia         


USB 3.0 (aka: SuperSpeed) Up to 5Gbps transfer rate. Max cable length is 3 meters (18 meters if using the maximum of five hubs). Released November 12, 2008.  Website         

Nehalem Microarchitecture codename from Intel. Released November 2008.  Wikipedia         

LGA 1366 (LGA, 1366 pins, aka: Socket B) CPU socket used with high-end Intel microprocessors. The list includes the Core i7 (9xx series), Xeon (35xx, 36xx,55xx, 56xx series), and Celeron P1053. Released November 2008.  Wikipedia         

Android Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices. First released September 23, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

Crysis Warhead  First released September 16, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

V8 (JavaScript engine) Developed by Google. First released September 2, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

Chrome Web browser developed by Google. First released September 2, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

Chromium Open source web browser project which is the foundation for Google Chrome.. Frist released September 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

HP Compaq dc5800 Small Form Factor PC Desktop computer from HP. Released Q4 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

Transport Layer Security 1.2 (TLS 1.2)  Defined in RFC 5246 August 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

The Dark Knight Second film in the Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy. Released July 18, 2008.  IMDB  Wikipedia       

IEEE 802.11r-2008 (aka: fast BSS transition (FT)) Published July 15, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

GOG.com (Formerly Good Old Games) Founded July 10, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 280  Released June 17, 2008.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 3.0  Released June 17, 2008.  Wikipedia         

Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML)  Developed June 2008 by Microsoft.  Wikipedia         

Certificate Revocation List (CRL) List of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing certificate authority (CA) before their scheduled expiration date and should no longer be trusted. Defined in RFC 5280 May 2008.  Wikipedia  RFC 5280       

Yorkfield Codename for some Intel Core 2 Quad and Xeon processors using the Penryn microarchitecture. First released March 15, 2008.  Wikipedia         

Server Core Stripped-down version of Windows server managed from the command line. First released in Windows Server 2008.    Wikipedia       

Windows Server 2008  RTM February 4, 2008. General availability February 27, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       

PhysX Open-source realtime physics engine middleware SDK developed by Nvidia as a part of Nvidia GameWorks software suite.  Acquired from Ageia on February 13, 2008.  Website  Wikipedia       


Crysis  First released November 13, 2007.  Website  Wikipedia  Wikipedia (Series)     

ATI Radeon HD 3870  Released November 9, 2007.  Wikipedia         

Penryn Microarchitecture codename from Intel. First released November 2007.  Wikipedia         

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Transport layer protocol similar to TCP and UDP. Standardized by IETF in RFC 4960 September 2007.  RFC 4960  Wikipedia       

iPhone Smartphone made by Apple. First released June 29, 2007.

Version Release Date
iPhone 2007
iPhone 3G 2008
iPhone 3GS 2009
iPhone 4 2010
iPhone 4S 2011
iPhone 5 2012
iPhone 5S 2013
iPhone 5C
iPhone 6 2014
iPhone 6 Plus
iPhone 6S 2015
iPhone 6S Plus

  Wikipedia  Website       

Zeus Trojan horse. First identified July 2007.  Wikipedia         

Dropbox File hosting service. Release June 2007.  Website  Wikipedia       

EAP Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) Designed to address the weaknesses of LEAP while preserving the "lightweight" implementation. Defined in RFC 4851 May 2007.  Wikipedia  RFC 4851       

Live File System Microsoft's First appeared in Windows Vista.  Wikipedia  Microsoft       

Windows Vista (Longhorn) Released January 30, 2007.  Wikipedia         

BitLocker Full drive encryption built into Windows. First included with Windows Vista Ultimate and Enterprise editions.   Microsoft Virtual Academy  Wikipedia  TechNet     

SeaTools Hard drive analysis tool from Seagate. First released January 30, 2007.  Website  Wikipedia       

SMB 2.0 (aka: SMB2) Introduced with Windows Vista in 2007.  Wikipedia         

Double Data Rate version three Synchronous DRAM (DDR3 SDRAM)  Release in 2007.  Wikipedia         


docx A Microsoft Word document.   Wikipedia         

Wii Video game console made by Nintendo. First released in North America November 19, 2006.  Wikipedia         

PowerShell Windows Command Prompt with a more Linux feel. Comes in blue by default. First released November 14, 2006.  Website  Wikipedia  PowerShell.org     

Zune Music player made by Microsoft. First released November 14, 2006.  Wikipedia         

Stop-Process  Introduced with PowerShell version 1.0.  TechNet         

NVIDIA GeForce 8800 GTX GPU from NVIDIA. Released November 8, 2006.  Wikipedia         

Windows Defender Antivirus program built into Windows. First released October 24, 2006.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 2.0  Released October 24, 2006.  Wikipedia         

Khan Academy Non-profit educational organization that provides "...a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere." Founded by Salman Khan in September of 2006.  Website  Wikipedia  YouTube (Khan Academy)     

Cisco ASA 5505 Firewall made by Cisco. Released August 31, 2006. EoL announced July 18, 2012.  Website  Wikipedia       

G Suite (Formerly: Google Apps for Work, Google Apps for Your Domain) First released August 28, 2006.  Website  Wikipedia       

jQuery A lightweight JavaScript library. First released August 26, 2006.  Website  Wikipedia       

Mac Pro High-end workstation made by Apple. First released August 7, 2006.  Website  Wikipedia       

Twttr Group SMS social network launched by Odeo. Released July 15, 2006.    TechCrunch       

Apple Fifth Avenue Apple Store located at 767 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10153. Opened May 19, 2006.  Website  Wikipedia  Press Release  This Day in Tech History   

DisplayPort (DP) Digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). Version, 1.0 approved by VESA on May 3, 2006.  Wikipedia         

Transport Layer Security 1.1 (TLS 1.1)  Defined in RFC 4346 April 2006.  Website  Wikipedia       

Twitter  Founded March 21, 2006.  Wikipedia         

Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) (aka: 802.11i) Includes mandatory support for CCMP, an AES encryption. Replaced WPA. Required for all new devices to bear the Wi-Fi trademark starting March 13, 2006.  Wikipedia         

Zone-Based Firewall (ZBF)  Introduced by Cisco in 2006.  Cisco         

Meraki  Founded in 2006. Acquired by Cisco December 2012.  Website  Wikipedia       

Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) (originally Wi-Fi Simple Config) Created by the Wi-Fi Alliance with the goal of giving users a push-button configuration to set up WPA, as well as making it easy to add new devices to an existing network without entering long passphrases. WPS PIN can be recovered by an attacker through a brute-force attack. Introduced in 2006. Major security flaw revealed in December 2011.  Wikipedia         


Java Web Toolkit (JWT) Web app framework for Java developed by Emweb. First released December 2005.  Website  Wikipedia       

Firefox 1.5 Dropped support for Mac OS X 10.1 and earlier. Announced as Firefox 1.1 June 23, 2005. Released as Firefox 1.5 November 30, 2005  Wikipedia         

Xbox 360  First released November 22, 2005.  Wikipedia         

ZFS    Wikipedia         

Unique Local Address (ULA) These addresses should not be routable in the global IPv6. Unique local addresses are in the range of FC00::/7 to FDFF::/7.  Defined in RFC 4193 October, 2005.  Wikipedia  RFC 4193       

OpenVAS (Open Vulnerability Assessment System, originally known as GNessUs) Open Source vulnerability scanner and manager forked from Nessus. Functions much like a database server, performing complex queries while the client interfaces with the server to simplify reporting and configuration. Began under the name of GNessUs as a fork of Nessus October 2005.  Website  Wikipedia       

Android, Inc. Original developer of the Android operating system. Founded in Palo Alto, California October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. Bought by Google August 17, 2005.  Wikipedia  Engadget       

Django High-level web development framework written in Python. First released July 21, 2005.  Website  Wikipedia       

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)    Wikipedia         

F# (F Sharp) Programing language developed by Microsoft. Released May 2005.  Wikipedia  Microsoft Developer Network  Microsoft (F# 1.0.8 released)     

Cisco ASA 5510 Firewall made by Cisco. Released May 4, 2005.  Website  Data Sheet       

Forza Motorsports  First released in North America May 3, 2005.  Wikipedia         

Overclock3D.net Technology discussion forum. Founded March 9, 2005.  Website         

Mac Mini Small form factor computer made by Apple. Released January 22, 2005.  Website  Wikipedia       

Flash Plug-in maintained by Adobe. Originally developed by Macromedia. Acquired by Adobe in 2005.  Wikipedia         

Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM)  Announced in 2005  Wikipedia         

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) Combines Security Information Management (SIM) and Security Event Management (SEM) software products and services. Analyzes security alerts from networking equipment and software in real-time. Can aggregate and correlate data, allowing you to organize it into valuable information. Splunk is an example of SIEM. Coined by Mark Nicolett and Amrit Williams of Gartner in 2005.  Wikipedia         

Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) Cryptographic hash function which produces a 160-bit hash value known as a message digest. part of several widely used security applications and protocols, including TLS and SSL, PGP, SSH, S/MIME, and IPsec. Can provide data integrity in a VPN. Designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA). not been considered secure since 2005.  Wikipedia         


World of Warcraft (WoW) Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) from Blizzard Entertainment. First released November 23, 2004.  Website  Wikipedia       

Razr Series of phones made by Motorola. First released in 2004.  Wikipedia         

V3 First phone in the Motorola Razr series. Released Q3 2004.  Wikipedia         

IEEE 802.11i-2004 (802.11i) Amendment to the original IEEE 802.11 witch improved security. Implemented as Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2). Draft standard was ratified on June 24, 2004.  Wikipedia         

Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC) (aka: Apple Lossless) Lossless audio format developed by Apple. First released April 28, 2004.  Wikipedia         

ASLEAP Exploit to Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP). Released by Joshua Wright in early 2004.  Wikipedia         

Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) (aka: PCI Express) Serial communication with unidirectional serial lanes. Does not slow down when slower devices are connected. Replaced PCI, PCI-X, and AGP. Developed in 2004.  Wikipedia         

LGA 775 (LGA, 775 pins, aka: Socket T) CPU socket used by Intel microprocessors from 2004-2007. The list includes Prescott and Cedar Mill Pentium 4, Smithfield and Presler Pentium D, Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Quad. Released in 2004. Superseded by LGA 1156 (Socket H) and LGA 1366 (Socket B).  Wikipedia         


Steam A gaming social network. First released September 12, 2003.  Wikipedia         

Advanced Encryption Standard - Cipher Block Chaining (AES-CBC) Used with IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). Published September 2003.  RFC 3602         

Xcode IDE from Apple. First released fall 2003.  Website  Wikipedia       

Skype A free softphone that uses proprietary protocols. First released August 29, 2003.  Website  Wikipedia       

Tesla Motors American automotive and energy company. Founded July, 2003.    Wikipedia       

Power Mac G5  Released June 23, 2003.  Wikipedia         

Safari Web browser from Apple. irst released January 7, 2003. Version 1.0 released June 23, 2003.  Website  Wikipedia       

x86-64 (AMD64) 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.   Wikipedia         

Opteron Processor line made by AMD. First processor to support the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set; AMD64 or x86-64. First released April 22, 2003.  Wikipedia         

SQL Slammer Worm Worm that exploited a bug in Microsoft SQL Server and Desktop Engine. Launcehed January 25, 2003.  Wikipedia         

Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)  Released in 2003.  Wikipedia         

Xen Hypervisor for Linux, BSD, and OpenSolaris. First released in 2003.  Wikipedia  Website  Xen Wiki     

ExpressCard (initially called NEWCARD) Developed by the PCMCIA as a way to support USB 2.0, USB 3.0, and PCI Express in laptops. two form factors, ExpressCard/34 (34 mm (1.3 in) wide) and ExpressCard/54 (54 mm (2.1 in) wide). First released in 2003.  Wikipedia         

IEEE 802.11g-2003 Amendment to IEEE 802.11 with transfer speeds up to 54Mbps on the same 2.4GHz band as 802.11b. Max range of 802.11b and 802.11g is 32m indoors / 140m outdoors. Rapidly adopted by consumers starting in January 2003, well before ratification.  Wikipedia         

10BASE5 (aka: thick Ethernet or thicknet) first commercially available variant of Ethernet. Used RG-8 coaxial cable and vampire tap network connectors. IEEE 802.3 has deprecated this standard for new installations as of 2003.  Wikipedia         

Double Data Rate version two Synchronous DRAM (DDR2 SDRAM)  Release in 2003.  Wikipedia         


Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) Security protocol used in IEEE 802.11 as a temporary solution to WEP. Published October 31, 2002. Deprecated in 2012.  Wikipedia         

Firefox Open source web browser designed and maintained by Mozilla. First released September 23, 2002.  Website  Wikipedia       

Pastebin.com Pastebin website. Launched September 3, 2002.  Website  Wikipedia       

AMD Athlon XP 2600+ Microprocessors from AMD. Released August 21, 2002.  Wikipedia         

DVD+R Single Sided, Single Layer DVD recordable (DVD+R) and DVD rewritable (DVD+RW) discs have a 4.7 GB capacity.

DVD+R, DVD+RW 4,700,372,992 Bytes
 Developed by Philips and Sony along with several other companies in the DVD+RW Alliance mid 2002.  Wikipedia         

Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX)  Founded May 2002.  Website  Wikipedia       

Arch Linux A Linux distribution. First released March 11, 2002.  Wikipedia         

.NET Framework Software framework developed by Microsoft. Initially released February 13, 2002.  Wikipedia  Microsoft       

Ageia Originally developed what would become PhysX. Founded in 2002. Acquired by Nvidia in 2008.  Wikipedia         


Xbox  First released November 15, 2001.  Wikipedia         

L2TP/IPsec (UDP port 1701) Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) running through an IPsec tunnel for security. Standardized in IETF RFC 3193 November 2001.  Wikipedia  RFC 3193       

Windows XP (Whistler) Initially released October 25, 2001.  Wikipedia         

Windows Firewall (Formerly: Internet Connection Firewall) Software firewall built into Windows. First included with Windows XP.  TechNet  Wikipedia       

iPod Portable music player made by Apple. First released October 23, 2001.  Apple Press Info  Wikipedia       

GameCube Video game console made by Nintendo. First released in Japan September 14, 2001.  Wikipedia         

Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) Does not compress the audio file. Released July 20, 2001  Wikipedia         

Code Red Computer worm. Released July 13, 2001. Isolation July 15, 2001.  Wikipedia.         

Intel Itanium architecture (IA-64) (aka: ia64) Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) for 64-bit Intel microprocessors in the Itanium family. First released June 2001.  Wikipedia         

Itanium Family of 64-bit microprocessors from Intel. First released June 2001.  Wikipedia         

iBook (Dual USB)  Released May 1, 2001.  Wikipedia         

.json A JSON file.   Wikipedia         

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Open-standard text format that is meant to be human-readable. It is the most common data format used for asynchronous browser/server communication (AJAJ), largely replacing XML which is used by AJAX.   Website  Wikipedia       

Kazaa P2P file sharing application. First released March 2001.  Wikipedia         

Wikipedia Worlds most popular wiki. Launched January 15, 2001.  Wikipedia  Website       

IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) Originally published in 2001.  Wikipedia (IEEE_802.16)  Wikipedia (WiMAX)       


Darwin Open source OS based on BSD and made by Apple. OS X and iOS get their core components from Darwin. First released November 15, 2000.  Wikipedia  Website       

Apache Subversion (SVN) Software versioning and revision control system distributed as open source under the Apache License. First released October 20, 2000.  Website  Wikipedia       

Windows ME  Released September 14, 2000.  Wikipedia         

Blue Origin  Founded September 2000 by Jeff Bezos.  Website  Wikipedia       

C# Object oriented programming language. Released July 2000  Wikipedia         

Drupal Free, open-source CMS framework written in PHP. First released May 18, 2000.  Website  Wikipedia       

USB 2.0 (aka: High Speed) Up to 480Mbps (60MBps) transfer rate. Max cable length is 5 meters (30 meters if using the maximum of five hubs). Released in April 2000.  Wikipedia         

WinSCP (aka: Windows Secure Copy) Free and open-source SFTP, FTP, WebDAV, Amazon S3 and SCP client for Microsoft Windows. Development began March 2000.  Website  Wikipedia       

iBook SE (aka: iBook Special Edition) Released February 16, 2000.  Wikipedia         

Linear Tape-Open (LTO) Magnetic tape data storage technology. Maximum capacity of 12 TB with the 8th generation as of 2017. LTO-1 released in 2000.  Wikipedia         


Blue Gene Supercomputer from IBM. Announced December 1999.  Wikipedia         

Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP)  October 28, 1999  Wikipedia  IETF       

NVIDIA GeForce 256 First GPU in the GeForce family. Released October 11, 1999.  Wikipedia         

Dreamcast Video game console made by Sega. Released in Japan November 27, 1998. Released in North America September 9, 1999.  Wikipedia         

Power Mac G4  Released August 31, 1999.  Wikipedia         

System Shock 2  First released August 11, 1999.  Wikipedia         

AMD Athlon 650 Microprocessor from AMD. Released August 9, 1999.  Wikipedia         

V.92 ITU standard for 56 kb/s download and 48 kb/s upload modems. Introduced August 1999.  Wikipedia  ITU       

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) (UDP ports 500 and 4500) Tunneling protocol similar to PPTP used to support Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). L2TP does not provide confidentiality or strong authentication by itself but is often used with IPsec to provide encryption. The combination of these two protocols is generally known as L2TP/IPsec. Published as proposed standard RFC 2661 August 1999.  Wikipedia  RFC 2661  Cisco     

7-Zip File archiver. First released July 18, 1999.  Website  Wikipedia       

AMD Athlon Family of x86 microprocessors from AMD. First released June 23, 1999.  Wikipedia         

AMD Athlon 600 First of the CPUs in the family of Athlon microprocessors released from AMD. Released June 23, 1999.  Wikipedia         

iBook G3 (aka: iBook G3 Clamshell) Released June 21, 1999.  Wikipedia         

iBook Line of laptops from Apple. First released with the iBook G3 June 21, 1999.  Wikipedia         

Common Unix Printing System (CUPS)  First released release June 9, 1999.  Wikipedia         

IEEE 802.11b-1999 (aka: 802.11b) Wireless standard that operates at 2.4GHz. Maximum transfer speed of 11Mbps. Max range of 802.11b and 802.11g is 32m indoors / 140m outdoors. 802.11b products appeared on the market in mid-1999. The Apple iBook was the first mainstream computer sold with optional 802.11b networking.  Wikipedia         

Landset 7 Satellite used for global satellite images. Launched on April 15, 1999.  Wikipedia         

Digital Visual Interface (DVI)

DVI-I (integrated, combines digital and analog in the same connector; digital may be single or dual link)
DVI-D (digital only, single link or dual link)
DVI-A (analog only)

 Developed April 1999.  Wikipedia         

The Matrix  Released March 31, 1999.  IMDB  Wikipedia       

Melissa Mass-mailing macro virus. Not considered as a worm as it was not a standalone program. Released by David L. Smith sometime around March 26, 1999.  Wikipedia         

Power Macintosh G3 (Blue & White)  Released January 5, 1999.  Wikipedia         

Apache Lucene Free and open-source information retrieval software library. Written by Doug Cutting in 1999.  Website  Wikipedia       

Neptune Codename for an unreleased version of Windows. Developed in 1999.  Wikipedia         

System Management Basic Input/Output System (SMBIOS) (System Management BIOS) Introduced in 1999.  Wikipedia         

Transport Layer Security (TLS) Successor to SSL. TLS 1.0 first defined in RFC 2246 January 1999.  Wikipedia  RFC 2246       

RingCentral Cloud-based phone system. Founded in 1999   Website  Wikipedia       

IEEE 802.11a-1999 (aka: 802.11a) Wireless standard that operates at 5GHz. Maximum transfer speed of 54Mbps. Ratified in 1999.  Wikipedia         


Internet Key Exchange (IKE) (UDP port 500, RFC 2409) Used to set up a security association (SA) in the IPsec protocol suite to authenticate users and devices. Builds on the Oakley protocol and ISAKMP. Uses X.509 certificates for authentication. Several types of authentication: username, password, one-time password, biometrics, PSK, and digital certificates. Originally defined by the IETF in RFC 2407, RFC 2408 and RFC 2409 November 1998.  Wikipedia  RFC 2407  RFC 2408  RFC 2409   

Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) Creates a Security Association (SA) between two hosts. Defined in RFC 2408 November 1998.  Wikipedia  RFC 2408       

phpMyAdmin Interface for managing MySQL databases through a web browser. First released September 9, 1998.  Wikipedia         

Google The company that will one day rule the world. Founded September 4, 1998.  Website  Wikipedia       

iMac All-in-one computer made by Apple. Announced May 6, 1998. First released August 15, 1998.  Website  Wikipedia       

USB 1.1 (aka: Full Speed) Up to 12Mbps (1.5MBps) transfer rate. Max cable length is 3 meters (18 meters if using the maximum of five hubs). Released in August 1998.  Wikipedia         

Sony Vaio 505  First released July 24, 1998.  Wikipedia         

Xeon Microprocessor made by Intel. First produced June 1998.  Wikipedia         

Pentium II Xeon (Drake) First processor in the Xeon lineup. Announced June 29, 1998.  Wikipedia  Tom's Hardware       

Windows 98 (code name: Memphis) Released May 15, 1998.  Wikipedia         

StarCraft  Released March 31, 1998.  Website  Wikipedia       

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Authentication framework created as a better authentication method to PPP. Proposed as a standard in RFC 2284, March 1998.  Wikipedia  RFC 3748  RFC 5247  RFC 7057  RFC 2284 

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) (aka: Rijndael) A type a data encryption. More efficient than DES. Three key lengths; 128, 192, and 256 bits. Can be used by IPsec to encrypt data. Symmetric cryptosystem. First published in 1998.  Wikipedia         

Nessus Proprietary vulnerability scanner and audit tool developed by Tenable Network Security. Free for personal use in a non-enterprise environment. Started by Renaud Deraison in 1998.  Website  Wikipedia       

Akamai Technologies, Inc. Content Delivery Network (CDN) and cloud services provider headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1998.  Website  Wikipedia       

Peripheral Component Interconnect eXtended (PCI-X) (aka: PCI eXtended) Based on PCI. Designed for servers. Higher bandwidth and four times faster clock speed than PCI. 1064 MB/s throughput. Parallel communication. Developed in 1998.  Wikipedia         


Power Macintosh G3 (Beige)  Released November 1997.  Wikipedia         

Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) QoS IntServ mechanism that reserves resources for an integrated services internet.  Operates at OSI Layer 4 (transport). Defined in RFC 2205 September 1997.  Wikipedia  RFC 2205       

Nmap (Network Mapper) Free and open source port scanning utility used for network discovery and security auditing. Written by Gordon Lyon. Published September 1997.  Website  Wikipedia       

DESCHALL First group to publicly crack the Data Encryption Standard (DES).  Announced June 18, 1997.  Wikipedia  This Day in Tech History       

OK Computer Third studio album from Radiohead. Released May 21, 1997.  Wikipedia         

HTC Taiwanese consumer electronics company headquartered in Xindian District, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Founded May 15, 1997.  Website  Wikipedia       

AOL Instant Messenger (AIM)  Released May 1997.  Wikipedia         

American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)  Founded April 18, 1997.  Wikipedia  Website       

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Lossy audio compression format. Standardized in April 1997as the successor to MP3 files.  Wikipedia         

K6 Microprocessor from AMD. Introduced April 1997.  Wikipedia         

Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh  Released March 20, 1997.  Wikipedia         

Power Macintosh 8600 (code name: Kansas) First released February 17, 1997.  Wikipedia         

Black Hat Briefings Security conference commonly referred to as Black Hat. Founded in 1997 by Jeff Moss, who also founded DEF CON.  Website  Wikipedia       

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) (port 80) Transfers webpages that make up the World Wide Web (WWW). When a request for a webpage is made to a web server, HTTP specifies the message types used for communication. The three common message types are GET, POST, and PUT. Introduced under RFC 2068 in January 1997.  Wikipedia  RFC 2068  RFC 2616  RFC 7540   

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) (deprecated) Uses the RC4 stream cipher for confidentiality, and the CRC-32 checksum for integrity. Can be easily hacked. Introduced as part of the original 802.11 standard ratified in 1997. Superseded by Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) in 2003. Deprecated in 2004.  Wikipedia         

The Vintage Computer Festival (VCF) Founded by Sellam Ismail in 1997.   Wikipedia         

smurf attack Type DDoS attack where large amounts of ICMP packets are sent from a spoofed IP address on the network to the network broadcast address causing many replies. Originally written as smurf.c by Dan Moschuk, aka TFreak, in 1997.  Wikipedia  Hackepedia       

DVD-R Single Sided, Single Layer DVD recordable (DVD-R) and DVD rewritable (DVD-RW) discs have a 4.7 GB capacity.

DVD-R, DVD-RW 4,707,319,808 Bytes
 Developed by Pioneer in 1997.  Wikipedia         


Office 97  Released November 19, 1996.  Wikipedia         

Nokia 8110 Phone famously featured in the movie The Matrix. Announced September 9, 1996.  Wikipedia         

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Performs a one-way authentication for a remote access connection. Authentication is performed through a three-way handshake (challenge, response, acceptance message) between a server and a client, without sending credentials across the network. Specified in RFC 1994, August 1996.  Wikipedia  RFC 1334  RFC 1994     

ncpa.cpl Command to open Network Properties in Windows. Introduced with Windows NT 4.0. July 31, 1996  Microsoft         

Windows NT 4.0  Released July 31, 1996.  Wikipedia         

Nintendo 64 (N64) Video game console made by Nintendo. First released in Japan June 23, 1996.  Wikipedia         

Quake  First released June 22, 1996.  Wikipedia         

K5 AMD's first x86 processor developed entirely in-house. Released March 27, 1996.  Wikipedia         

Juniper Networking company in Sunnyvale, California. Founded February 6, 1996   Wikipedia  Website       

Gil Amelio  Named CEO of Apple Computer February 2, 1996  Wikipedia  This Day in Tech History       

ActiveX Allows for interactive and multimedia elements to integrate into web pages. Developed by Microsoft. Initially released in 1996.  Wikipedia         

Universal Serial Bus (USB) Standard connector that replaced the plethora of serial and parallel IO.  Designed to be "Plug-and-Play" hot swappable and self-configuring. Supports up to 127 connected devices through a single bus (port) at one time.  First introduced January 1996.  Wikipedia         

Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)  Proposed by Novell in 1996.  Wikipedia         

USB 1.0 (aka: Low Bandwidth, Low Speed) Up to 1.5Mbps transfer rate. First introduced January 1996.  Wikipedia         

Neustar  Founded in 1996  Website  Wikipedia       

RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) (128, 160, 256, and 320-bit digests) Open standard family of cryptographic hash functions. Based on MD4 and is similar in performance to SHA-1. Not very common. Developed in Leuven, Belgium, by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers and Bart Preneel at the COSIC research group at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and first published in 1996.  Wikipedia         


Apache HTTP server.

/etc/apache2 Debian
"C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2" Windows
 Released as Apache 1.0 December 1, 1995.  Website  Wikipedia  Apache HTTP Server Wiki     

.mp3 File extension for an MP3 file. The name .mp3 was chosen by the Fraunhofer team on July 14, 1995.  Wikipedia         

PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) Server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. The basic syntax looks like this: < ? php //code goes here ?> Originaly released as "Personal Home Page Tools (PHP Tools)" June 8, 1995.  Wikipedia  Website  YouTube (Derek Banas)     

Internet Tidal Wave Memo written by Bill Gates titled "The Internet Tidal Wave" declaring: "The Internet is the most important single development to come along since the IBM PC was introduced in 1981." Sent out May 26, 1995.  Wired  This Day in Tech History       

Java Object-oriented programming language. Released May 23, 1995.  Wikipedia         

MySQL A popular RDBMS.  First released May 23, 1995.  Website  Wikipedia  YouTube (Derek Banas)     

E3 Electronic Entertainment Expo. First held May 11, 1995 - May 13, 1995 at the Los Angeles Convention Center.  Website  Wikipedia       

WinRAR File archiver. First released April 22, 1995.  Website  Wikipedia       

Opera Web browser developed by Opera Software. First released April 1995.  Website  Wikipedia       

Yahoo!  Started by Jerry Yang and David Filo January, 1994 as Jerry and David's guide to the World Wide Web. Incorporated as Yahoo in March, 1995.  Wikipedia  Website       

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Can be used to established remote-access VPN connections. Initially published as SSL 2.0 February 1995.  Wikipedia  Instant SSL by Comodo       

Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) Responds immediately and inspects traffic before it enters the network. Developed during the late 1990s.  Wikipedia  YouTube       

OpenBSD UNIX like OS based off BSD. Forked from NetBSD in 1995.  Website  Wikipedia       

Advanced Technology eXtended (ATX) Motherboard standard developed by Intel. Released in 1995.  Wikipedia         

Software-Defined Networking (SDN)  Began shortly after Sun Microsystems released Java in 1995.  Wikipedia         


Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Tunneling protocol developed by Cisco. Creates a virtual point-to-point link and encapsulates Layer 3 packets. Has no encryption or authentication of data. By itself GRE is stateless and does not have flow-control. At least 24 bytes of additional overhead for tunneled packets. The original form of VPN. Introduced in 1994 as RFC 1701. Proposed as an IETF standard in 2000 as RFC 2784.  Wikipedia  RFC 1701  RFC 2784  Cisco   

System Shock  Released September 23, 1994.  Wikipedia         

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Common non-proprietary Layer 2 protocol found on dedicated leased lines. Sends packets over point-to-point links. Offers features such as: multilink interface, looped link detection, error detection, and authentication. Supports PAP and CHAP authentication. Can be configured on interfaces with asynchronous serial, synchronous serial, HSSI, and ISDN. Defined in RFC 1661 July 1994.  Wikipedia  RFC 1661       

Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15) Wireless standard that operates using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz to form personal area networks (PANs). Packet-based protocol with a master/slave architecture. One master may communicate with up to seven slaves in a piconet. Devices operate at very low power levels of approximately 1 milliwatt (mW). Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994. Named after the Denmark King, Harald Bluetooth because he united Denmark and Norway just as the protocol did for technology.  Wikipedia (Bluetooth)  Wikipedia (Harald Bluetooth)  Website     

NAT firewall Expands IP address range and hides addressing scheme. One of the first NAT filrewalls was the PIX firewall developed in 1994 and later bough by Cisco.  Wikipedia (Cisco PIX)         

Network Address Translation (NAT) Remaps one IP address space into another. Three kinds of NAT: static, dynamic, and overload (PAT). Translation process:

Inside local private IP address being translated
Inside global public IP address referencing an inside device
Outside local private IP address referencing an outside device
Outside global public IP address referencing an outside device

 One of the first NAT appliances is the PIX firewall developed in 1994.  RFC 1631  Wikipedia (Network Address Translation)  Wikipedia (Cisco PIX)  YouTube (VambarInc)  How Stuff Works 

R Programming language. First released in 1994  Website  Wikipedia       

Corsair Computer peripherals and hardware company headquartered in Fremont, California. Founded in 1994.  Website  Wikipedia       

Cisco PIX  One of the first NAT appliances. Developed in 1994.  Wikipedia  History of the PIX Firewall       


Doom First-person shooter. First released December 10, 1993 to MS-DOS and Mac OS.  Wikipedia         

New Technology File System (NTFS) (Comically known as: Not The Fat System) Microsofts' proprietary file system. Released with Windows NT 3.1 July 27, 1993.  Wikipedia         

Windows NT Family of operating systems from Microsoft. This began with Windows NT 3.1 released July 27, 1993.  Wikipedia         

Windows NT 3.1  Released July 27, 1993.  Wikipedia         

DEF CON (aka: DEFCON) One of the world's largest security/hacker conventions. First held June 9, 1993.  Website  Wikipedia       

Exchange Mail server from Microsoft. First released April 11, 1993.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA  Founded April 1993.  Website  Wikipedia       

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Internal gateway, distance vector, classless protocol. Creates and maintains the topology table, neighbor table, and the best path(s) in the routing table. Has an administrative distance of 90 and uses multicast address Protocol number of 88. Uses DUAL. Establishes neighbor adjacencies with hello packets. Can be configured with authentication at the router. Sends out only partial and bounded updates. (Only sends route changes to the routers it affects.) Was originally Cisco proprietary but Cisco released basic functionality to the IETF and it is now an 'open' standard. Introduced in 1993.  Wikipedia  Cisco  RFC 7868     

Red Hat Runs RHEL. Headquarters are in Raleigh, North Carolina. Founded in 1993.  Website  Wikipedia       

Simple Network Management Protocol version 2c (SNMPvc2) Community-based form of security. Able to access an agent's MIB as defined by ACLs and passwords. Offer minimal security features. (No encryption or authentication.)   Wikipedia         

Software-Optimized Encryption Algorithm (SEAL) Alternative algorithm to software-based DES, 3DES, and AES. Stream cipher with 160 bit encryption key. Low CPU usage. Symmetric Developed in 1993 by Phillip Rogaway and Don Coppersmith.  Netacad         

Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) Similar to a kernel panic. Occurs when Windows encounters a "STOP Error". The iPhone 5S encountered a "BSoD" of sorts when trying to install iOS 7. Present in Windows as early as Windows NT 3.1 in 1993.  Wikipedia  How-To Geek  Apple Forums  PC Mag   

Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS) (formerly Real-Time Executive for Missile Systems, Real-Time Executive for Military Systems) Free and open-source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) designed for embedded systems. Development began in the late 1980s with early versions available via ftp as early as 1993.  Website  Wikipedia       

Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus (TACACS+) Protocol developed by Cisco. Although derived from TACACS, TACACS+ is a separate protocol that handles authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) services. Encrypts an entire authentication packet, rather than just the password. Released as an open standard beginning in 1993.  Wikipedia         

Blowfish Symmetric block cipher. Designed by Bruce Schneier in 1993.  Wikipedia         


GNU zip (gzip) Compresses files but not directories. Initially released October 31, 1992  Wikipedia         

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Expansion card slot found on a motherboard. Created by Intel June 22, 1992.  Wikipedia         

Windows 3.1 (codenamed Janus) Released April 6, 1992.  Wikipedia  This Day in Tech History       

Message-Digest Algorithm 5 (MD5) Widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value. Used as a checksum to verify data integrity, but only against unintentional corruption. Initially designed as a cryptographic hash function but its security has been compromised due to extensive vulnerabilities. Designed by Ronald Rivest in 1991 to MD4. Published in RFC 1321 April 1992.  Wikipedia         

Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC - Performance Computing (PowerPC) Microprocessor designed by Apple, IBM, and Motorola (AIM). Released in 1992.  Wikipedia         

Cooler Master Computer hardware manufacturer from Taiwan. Founded in 1992.  Website  Wikipedia       

Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T) (often written as SMART) Keeps track of the health of a hard disk drive (HDD) or solid-state drive (SSD).   Wikipedia         

fping Ping sweep tool used to ping multiple IP addresses simultaneously. First published by Roland Schemers in 1992.  Website  Wikipedia       


vim (vi improved) A text editor UNIX based operating systems.

:i (insert)
:q (quit)
:w (write)
 Initially released November 2, 1991.  Website  Wikipedia  tldp.org  Linux Command   

PowerBook 100  Released October 21, 1991.  Wikipedia         

PowerBook 140  Released October 21, 1991.  Wikipedia         

PowerBook 170  Released October 21, 1991.  Wikipedia         

Apple IBM Motorola (AIM) Alliance between Apple, IBM, and Motorola to create PowerPC. Formed October 2, 1991.  Wikipedia         

Linux Operating system based off of UNIX. Written in C.   Wikipedia         

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) (authentication) Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for digital signatures, based on the mathematical concept of modular exponentiation and the discrete logarithm problem. DSA is a variant of the Schnorr and ElGamal signature schemes. DSA signature generation is faster than DSA signature verification. Attributed to David W. Kravitz. Filed under U.S. Patent 5,231,668 July 26, 1991. Adopted by the U.S. government in 1993 with FIPS 186.  Wikipedia         

Visual Basic  First released May 1991.  Website  Wikipedia       

Python High-level programming language that uses a simple syntax First released February 20, 1991.  Website  Wikipedia       

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) (aka: sim card) Developed in 1991 by Munich smart-card maker Giesecke & Devrien.  Wikipedia         

International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) [originally called Improved Proposed Encryption Standard (IPES)] Symmetric-key block cipher. Intended as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES). IDEA is a minor revision of an earlier cipher Proposed Encryption Standard (PES). Designed by James Massey of ETH Zurich and Xuejia Lai and was first described in 1991.  Wikipedia         


Z Shell (zsh)  Released December 14, 1990.  Wikipedia         

Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) (aka: Super Nintendo) Video game console made by Nintendo. First released in Japan November 21, 1990.  Wikipedia         

Final Fantasy Fantasy role-playing game. First released for the NES in Japan December 18, 1987 and in North America July 12, 1990.  Wikipedia         

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) International non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California. Founded by Mitch Kapor, John Perry Barlow, and John Gilmore July 6, 1990.  Wikipedia  Website       

Simple Network Management Protocol version 1 (SNMPv1) Community-based form of security. Able to access an agent's MIB as defined by ACLs and passwords. Offer minimal security features. (No encryption or authentication.) Defined in RFC 1157 May 1990.  Wikipedia  RFC 1157       

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) 802.1D A legacy standard that runs all VLANs in a spanning tree instance. Developed to addresses the issue of routing loops. Ensures redundant physical links are loop-free. First standardized by IEEE as 802.1D in 1990. Original algorithm developed by Radia Perlman in 1985.  Cisco  Wikipedia  Cisco (Understanding and Configuring Spanning Tree Protocol)     

switch Network device that typically operates at OSI Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 7. Provides centralized connectivity similar to hubs. Forwards data only to the device(s) that need to receive it based on the Layer 2 header. Filters MAC addresses and builds a MAC table. Switch has ports, router has interfaces. Can operate with or without VLANs. First Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990.  Wikipedia  Network Computing archive       

Extended TACACS (XTACACS) Proprietary extension to TACACS. Both TACACS and XTACACS allow a remote access server to communicate with an authentication server to determine if the user has access to the network. Introduced by Cisco Systems without backwards compatibility to the original protocol in 1990.  Wikipedia         

Message-Digest Algorithm 4 (MD4) Cryptographic hash function. Developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990. First full collision attack against MD4 was published in 1995.  Wikipedia         

Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) Physical and logical interface defined in the original IEEE 802.3 standard for 10BASE5 Ethernet. Phased out in the early 1990s in favor of 10BASE-T.  Wikipedia         


Macintosh Portable  Released September 20, 1989.  Wikipedia         

Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) Published and maintained a sequence of standards for parallel communication peripheral interfaces in laptops, notably the PC Card (PCMCIA card), and the ExpressCard, all of which are technologically obsolete. Founded September 1989. Dissolved in 2009. Activities now managed by the USB Implementer's Forum.  Wikipedia         

Genesis Video game console made by Sega. First released in North America August 14, 1989.  Wikipedia         

VESA (formally known as Video Electronics Standards Association) Founded July 1989.  Website  Wikipedia       

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Exterior gateway routing protocol, path vector, classes. Designed to share prefix information between different autonomous systems. Version 1 was introduced in June 1989 under RFC 1105.  Wikipedia  RFC 4271  RFC 1105     

World Wide Web (WWW) (aka: the Web, port 80) HTTP/web services. Information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, such as https://www.example.com/), which may be interlinked by hypertext, and are accessible via the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users via a software application called a web browser. Invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee while working for CERN by submitting Information Management: A Proposal on March 12, 1989.  Wikipedia         

Network File System (NFS) Distributed file system that allows access to files over a network in a similar manner to accessing a local file. Developed by Sun Microsystems. First defined in RFC 1094 March 1989.  Wikipedia  RFC 1094  Netacad     

stateful firewall Filters traffic based on what is allowed to enter or exit an interface, without inspecting the traffic. Only packets matching a known active connection are allowed to pass the firewall. Monitors state of connection through SPI. Most common type of firewall. Developed by Bell Labs in 1989.  Wikipedia         


worm Malicious code that replicates itself. Responsible for some of the most devastating attacks on the internet. Primarily network based and can slow networks down. Can run on its own without user interaction. Tend to exploit software vulnerabilities.

Three major parts:
enabling vulnerability
propagation mechanism

 First used in John Brunner's 1975 novel, The Shockwave Rider. First appearance on the internet was the Morris worm released November 2, 1988.  Wikipedia  YouTube  Netacad     

Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3)  Defined in RFC 1081 November 1988.  Wikipedia  RFC 1081       

Microsoft Office  First announced August 1, 1988. Released August 1, 1989 for Mac OS and November 19, 1990 for Windows.  Wikipedia         

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Service uses port 161, trap uses port 162. Uses SNMP managers, agents, and MIBs. Consumes more bandwidth than Syslog. First defined in RFC 1067 August 1988.  Wikipedia  RFC 1067  Cisco (Configuring SNMP)  Netacad  CCIE or Null! 

X.509 ITU-T standard for Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Released July 3, 1988.  Wikipedia  ITU       

Application System/400 (AS/400)  Introduced June 21, 1988.  Wikipedia         

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) [aka: Computer Emergency Readiness Team, Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT)] Expert group that handles computer security incidents. USA CERT created by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and run by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at the Carnegie Mellon University. CERT name first used in 1988 by the CERT Coordination Center (CERT-CC) at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU).  SEI Website  Wikipedia       

Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) IEEE standard for software compatibility with various UNIX-based operating systems. Standardized by Richard Stallman and IEEE in 1988.  Wikipedia         

TrendMicro Security software company based in Tokyo, Japan. Founded in 1988.  Wikipedia  Website       

VisionTek  Founded in 1988.  Website         


Perl High level programming language. Originally developed by Larry Wall. First released December 18, 1987.  Website  Wikipedia       

Christmas Tree EXEC First widely disruptive computer worm. Discovered December 9, 1987.  Wikipedia  Malware Wiki       

pointer record (PTR) Type of DNS record that maps an IP address to a hostname. Defined in RFC 1035 November 1987.  Wikipedia  RFC 1035       

X11 Version of the X Window System. X11 since September 1987.  Wikipedia         

GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) (formerly: GNU C Compiler) Compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages. Originally only supported the C programming language and later C++. Front ends were later developed for Objective-C, Objective-C++, Fortran, Java, Ada, and Go among others. First released May 23, 1987.   Website  Wikipedia       

IBM Personal System/2 (PS/2)  Released April, 1987. Introduced OS/2 the PS/2  Wikipedia         

McAfee Security software company based in Santa Clara, California. Founded in 1987. Bought by Intel in 2010 for $7.68 billion.  Wikipedia         

PC/104 Embedded computer standards which define both form factors and computer buses. PC/104 is intended for specialized environments where a small, rugged computer system is required. The standard is modular, and allows consumers to stack together boards from a variety of COTS manufacturers to produce a customized embedded system. Originally devised by Ampro in 1987 (led by CTO Rick Lehrbaum), and later standardized by the PC/104 Consortium in 1992.  Wikipedia         

Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) (formerly: Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) Configuration of multiple disks for redundancy (mirroring/parity) and sometimes performance (striping with RAID 0). Term "RAID" was invented by David Patterson, Garth A. Gibson, and Randy Katz at the University of California, Berkeley in 1987.  Wikipedia         

Huawei  Founded in 1987.  Wikipedia         

VxWorks Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) intended for embedded devices. Runs on many architectures, and supports features such as SMP, IPv6, TIPC and memory protection. Developed as proprietary software by Wind River Systems. First released in 1987.  Website  Wikipedia       

Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) (aka: Alleged RC4 (ARC4), ARCFOUR) (1 round, 40-2048 bit key) Stream cipher popularized by its speed and simplicity. Part of some commonly used encryption protocols and standards, such as WEP, WPA, SSL, and TLS. Designed by Ron Rivest in 1987. Initially a trade secret, but in September 1994 a description of it was anonymously posted to the Cypherpunks mailing list. Prohibited for all versions of TLS by RFC 7465 in 2015, due to the RC4 attacks weakening or breaking RC4 used in SSL/TLS.  Wikipedia         

S-Video (aka: separate video, Y/C) Signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. It transmits video signals over a cable by dividing the video information into two separate signals: one for color (chrominance), and the other for brightness (luminance). Better image quality than composite video, but has lower color resolution than component video. Uses a 4, 7, or 9 pin Mini-DIN connector. Designed in 1987.  Wikipedia         


Aaron Swartz Developer involved with several projects including RSS, Markdown, and Reddit.  November 8, 1986 - January 11, 2013.  Wikipedia         

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) Funded by the U.S. Department of Defense. Helped create the first router. Originated in 1986.  Wikipedia         

Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) The predecessor to SATA. Originally developed in 1986 by Wester Digital under the name Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE).  Wikipedia  TechTerms       

Antec Computer case and accessory maker. Founded 1986. Located in Fremont California.  Wikipedia         

IEEE 1394 (aka: FireWire, i.LINK, Lynx) Serial bus interface for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. Typically a coper cable which can be up to 4.5 meters (15 ft.) long. Comes in 4, 6, or 9 pin variants. Maximum power of 30 V and 1.5 A. Supports up to 63 daisy chained devices. Similar to USB, though USB requires a master controller. Developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Apple, who called it FireWire. Also known by the brands i.LINK (Sony), and Lynx (Texas Instruments).  Wikipedia         

Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) The first version of what is now ATA. Developed by Western Digital in 1986.  Wikipedia         

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) (IMAP: port 143, IMAPS: port 993) Protocol for email retrieval. IMAP Secure (IMAPS) operates over SSL or TLS. Designed by Mark Crispin in 1986.  Wikipedia         

pcAnywhere Suite of computer programs by Symantec for remote access. Operates on ports 65301, 22, 5631, and 5632. Originally developed by Dynamic Microprocessor Associates in 1986.  Wikipedia         


Windows 1.01  Released November 20, 1985.  Website  Wikipedia       

Excel Spreadsheet application from Mricosoft. Fisrt released September 30, 1985.  Website  Wikipedia  Microsoft (Shortcuts)     

Gateway Computer company based in South Dakota. Founded September 5, 1985. Acquired by Acer October 16, 2007.  Wikipedia         

Commodore Amiga 1000 (aka: A1000) First personal computer from Commodore. Released July 23, 1985.  Wikipedia         

Apple LaserWriter Laser printer with built-in PostScript interpreter from Apple Computer, Inc. One of the first laser printers available to the mass market. Released March 1, 1985. Discontinued February 1, 1988.  Wikipedia         

Post Office Protocol version 2 (POP2)  Defined in RFC 937 February 1985.  Wikipedia  RFC 937       

Elliptic-Curve Cryptography (ECC) Public key cryptography protocol used for encryption as well as digital signatures and key exchange. Reduces the time needed to generate keys. Often used on small mobile devices, due to its low power and computing requirements.   Wikipedia         

Single UNIX Specification (SUS) Standards required to qualify as "UNIX"     Wikipedia       


Cisco Networking company based in San Jose, California. Founded in December of 1984. Name derived from San Francisco where Cisco first started.  Wikipedia         

Post Office Protocol (POP) (v2, port 109. v3, port 110.) Application layer protocol used for receiving email. First defined in RFC 918 October 1984.  Wikipedia  RFC 918       

Dell Private computer company. Founded February 1, 1984.  Website  Wikipedia  Support     

Macintosh (Mac) Line of computers made by Apple. Commonly shortened to just Mac. First released January 24, 1984.  Website  Wikipedia       

Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Monitors network traffic. Developed by SRI International in 1984.  Wikipedia         

type Shell builtin. Command that describes how its arguments would be interpreted if used as command names. Added to the Bourne Shell in 1984.  Wikipedia (UNIX)         

X Window System Windowing system typically found on UNIX-based operating systems. Originated from MIT in 1984.  Wikipedia         

Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System (TACACS (TCP or UDP port 49) Family of related protocols handling remote authentication and related services for networked access control through a centralized server. Originally developed by BBN Technologies for administering MILNET in 1984.  Wikipedia         

Printer Command Language (PCL)  First released on the HP ThinkJet 2225 in 1984.  Wikipedia         

Digital Linear Tape (DLT) (formerly: CompacTape) Magnetic tape data storage technology. Maximum capacity of 800GB or 160GB in the value line. Developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1984.  Wikipedia         


Domain Name System (DNS) (aka: Domain Name Service) (UDP port 53) Translates domain names such as google.com into IP addresses. Originaly published in RFC 882 and RFC 883 November 1983.  Wikipedia  RFC 882  RFC 883  Cisco (Configuring DNS on Cisco Routers)   

Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) Video game console made by Nintendo. First released in Japan as the Family Computer July 15, 1983.  Wikipedia         

Korn shell (ksh)  Announced July 14, 1983.  Wikipedia         

Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi  Released May 25, 1983.           

Osborne Executive Successor to the Osborne 1. Announced in 1982. Released April 18, 1983.  Wikipedia  This Day in Tech History       

Apple Lisa  Released January 19, 1983.  Wikipedia         

doc .doc Proprietary filename extension for a Microsoft Word document.   Wikipedia          

C++ Object-oriented programming language. Introduced in 1983.  Website  Wikipedia       

Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) Works at the OSI session layer (layer 5). Developed as an API.   Wikipedia         

Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) Annual Apple developer conference. Began in 1983.  Website  Wikipedia       

Objective-C Object-oriented programming language. Released in 1983.  Wikipedia         


Compaq Portable One of the first 100% IBM PC compatible systems. Announced November 4, 1982  Wikipedia         

Commodore 64 8-bit home computer from Commodore International. Released August 1982.  Wikipedia         

Adobe Software company based in San Jose, California. Founded February 28, 1982.  Website  Wikipedia       

Compaq  Founded February 14, 1982. Acquired by HP in 2002.  Wikipedia         

Intel 80286 (aka: Intel 286) 16-bit microprocessor developed by Intel. Introduced 1 February 1982.  Wikipedia         


Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Used by diagnostic tools such as ping and traceroute. Defined in RFC 792 September, 1981.  Wikipedia  RFC 792       

TC Shell (tcsh) Default shell in FreeBSD. Previosly used as the default shell before Mac OS X 10.3.  Website  Wikipedia       

Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS)  Released in August 1981.  Wikipedia         

Osborne 1 First commercially successful portable microcomputer. Released April 3, 1981.  Wikipedia  Technologizer       

Network Time Protocol (NTP) (UDP port 123) Synchronizes time across devices in the network. Helps when comparing syslog.   Wikipedia  Debian Wiki       

Computex Computer expo in Taipei. First expo in 1981.  Website  Wikipedia       

Wind River Systems Alameda, California-based that company develops embedded system software. Founded by Jerry Fiddler and Dave Wilner in 1981.  Website  Wikipedia       


Pac-Man  First introduced in Japan as Puck-Man May 22, 1980. Released in the United States October 10, 1980.  This Day in Tech History         

Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back  Released May 17, 1980.  Wikipedia         

Osborne Computer Corporation (OCC)  Founded by Adam Osborne in 1980.  Wikipedia         


Walkman Portable cassette tape player from Sony. First released July 1, 1979.  Wikipedia         

VisiCalc First spreadsheet computer program for personal computers. Announced at the West Coast Computer Faire May 11, 1979. Released for the Apple II by VisiCorp at the National Computer Conference June 4, 1979.  Wikipedia  This Day in Tech History       

3COM  Founded in 1979.  Wikipedia         

tar (tape archive) Both a file format and a program. Example:

tar -zxvf
 Introduced with version 7 UNIX in 1979.  Wikipedia         

Version 7 Unix (V7)    Wikipedia         

Dell EMC (formerly EMC Corporation) Founded in 1979.  Website  Wikipedia       


LaserDisc (LD) Type of optical disc with a 0.3 GB capacity. Released December 15, 1978.  Wikipedia         

Apple DOS OS used on the Apple II. Released in 1978.  Wikipedia         

Global Positioning System (GPS) Global navigation satellite system managed by the United States with 24 total satellites. 3 satellites are needed to determine location while 4 are required to determine location and elevation. Launched February 1978.  Wikipedia         

x86 Classifies kind of the processors used in many personal computers and servers. Based on the Intel 8086 with a 16-bit architecture in 1978.  Wikipedia         

Intel 8086 16-bit microprocessor developed by Intel. First member of the x86 family. Introduced in 1978.  Wikipedia         


OpenVMS  First released October 25, 1977.  Website  Wikipedia       

Apple II  Released June 10, 1977.  Wikipedia         

Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope  Released May 25, 1977.           

West Coast Computer Faire  First held April 16, 1977.  Wikipedia         

Data Encryption Standard (DES) Symmetric encryption algorithm, usually encrypted with a block cipher. The key is 64-bits long, but only 56 bits are used for encryption. Can be used by IPsec to encrypt data. Published as FIPS standard FIPS PUB 46 January 15, 1977.  Wikipedia  Netacad       

Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) One of the most common asymmetric algorithms in public key cryptography. Typically used to generate digital signatures. Keys are usually 512 to 2048 bits. Acronym is the first letter from each surname of the developers; Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman. Published in 1977.  Wikipedia         


Acer  Founded September 1976.  Website  Wikipedia       

Apple Tech company. Founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak on April 1, 1976.  Wikipedia         

Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) DES block cipher. Most widely used mode of DES. Invented by Ehrsam, Meyer, Smith and Tuchman in 1976.  Wikipedia         

Diffie–Hellman key Exchange (DHE) (aka: Diffie-Hellman (DH)) Key negotiation and agreement protocol used in public key cryptography. Asymmetric algorithm used to create shared keys. Does not provide encryption but is used to establish the secret key between two parties. First published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman in 1976.

DH1 (Legacy) 768 bit key.
DH2 (Legacy) 1024 bit key
DH5 (Legacy) 1536 bit key
DH14 2048 bit key
DH15 3072 bit key
DH16 4096 bit key
DH19 supports Elliptical Curve Cryptography
DH20 supports Elliptical Curve Cryptography
DH24 supports Elliptical Curve Cryptography
  Wikipedia  Netacad  Netacad  YouTube (Art of the Problem)   

X.25 ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication. Published in "The Orange Book" in 1976.  Wikipedia         

Emacs Comically known as "Eight Megabytes and Constantly Swapping" or "Esc-Meta-Alt-Ctrl-s"   Wikipedia         


Microsoft Tech company based in Redmond Washington. Founded April 4, 1975.  Website  Wikipedia       

Homebrew Computer Club Early computer hobbyist group in Menlo Park, California. Met from March 1975 to December 1986. First meeting held on March 5, 1975.  Wikipedia         

Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup). Created by Gary Kildall and first appeared in the CP/M operating system in 1975. Succeeded by Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI).  Wikipedia         

X10 Allows for data signal to be sent over alternating current. Primarily used in home automation.  Originally developed in 1975.  Wikipedia         


grep Utility that searches strings of text using regular expressions. First released November 1974.  Wikipedia         

Intel 8080 8-bit Microprocessor developed by Intel. Introduced in April, 1974.  Wikipedia         

Telenet Commercial packet switched network. Went into service in 1974.  Wikipedia         

Special Interest Group on Computer GRAPHics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH) Annual conference on computer graphics (CG) convened by the ACM SIGGRAPH organization. First held in 1974.  Website  Wikipedia       


Sergey Brin Co-founded Google with Larry Page. Born August 21, 1973.  Website  Wikipedia       

window The border around an application. Can be traced as far back as the Xerox Alto.  Wikipedia         

Xerox Alto First computer designed with a GUI. Released March 1, 1973.  Wikipedia         

Dennis Ritchie  Developed the C programming language with help from Ken Thompson in 1973.  Wikipedia         

Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (aka: TCP/IP model, Department of Defense (DoD) model) Protocol suite. The IP suite is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).

1 network interface
2 internet
3 transport
4 application

 Predates the OSI model, a more comprehensive reference framework for general networking systems. Replaced proprietary protocol suits such as AppleTalk and Novell's Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX).  Wikipedia         


Pong Video game. Released November 29, 1972.  Wikipedia         

Atari  Founded by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney June 27, 1972.  Wikipedia         

Intel 8008 8-bit Microprocessor developed by Intel. Introduced in April, 1972.  Wikipedia         


Led Zeppelin IV  Released November 8, 1971.  Wikipedia         

vi Text editor that is standard in most UNIX based operating systems. vi comes from the visual mode in the ex text editor.   YouTube  Linux Command       


Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Based off UNIX. Developed in the 1970s by  Wikipedia         

fiber-optic Type of cable consisting of a thin flexible transparent glass or plastic fiber slightly thicker than a human hair. Can transmit from 100Mbps to 10Gbps for several miles. Uses pulses of light to transmit data making it immune to wiretapping and electrical interference. Two cable types: Single-Mode Fiber (SMF) and Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF). First developed in the 1970s.  Wikipedia         


Apollo 11  Landed on the moon July 20, 1969.  Wikipedia         

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Processor manufacturer. Founded May 1, 1969.  Wikipedia         

PDP-7  Used by Ken Thompson to write UNIX in 1969.  Wikipedia         

Ken Thompson  Developed the UNIX operating system in 1969. Also developed the B programming language.           


Apollo 8 television broadcast Crew of Apollo 8 read the first 10 verses of the Book of Genesis as they orbited the moon on Christmas Eve. Most watched television program of its time. Aired December 24, 1968.  Wikipedia  PBS       

Apollo 8 First manned spacecraft to leave Earth's orbit. Launched December 21, 1968.  Wikipedia         

Intel  Founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore July 18, 1968.  Website  Wikipedia       

Moore's law The observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. Named after Gordon Moore. Published on April 19, 1965 stating a one year rate of change. Revised the rate in 1975 to approximately every two years.  Wikipedia         

Michael Dell Founder and CEO of Dell. Born February 23, 1965.  Website  Wikipedia       

CDC 6600 Mainframe supercomputer from Control Data Corporation. Delivered January 14, 1965 to CERN.  Wikipedia  CERN       

Bruce Schneier American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. Born January 15, 1963.  Website  Wikipedia       

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) World's largest association of technical professionals. Founded January 1, 1963.  Wikipedia  Website       

Spacewar! First game on the PDP-1 Released in 1962.  Wikipedia         

Sega Japanese video game company. Founded in 1940 as Service Games. Renamed to Sega June 3, 1960.  Wikipedia         

MAchine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) Standard for items catalogued by libraries. Developed by Henriette Avram in the 1960s.  Wikipedia         

Minicomputer  Small computer developed in the mid-1960s.  Wikipedia         

supercomputer Many processors connected together (either distributed or cluster) to solve complex problems.  First designed by Seymour Cray in the 1960's  Wikipedia         

Text Reckoning And Compiling (TRAC) Programming language. Developed in the early 1960s by Calvin Mooers.  Wikipedia         

UNIX An operating system developed by Bell Labs with Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. Originally written in the PDP-7 assembly language. OS X and Linux are two popular operating systems based off UNIX.   Wikipedia         

Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) Type of microprocessor that uses a simplified instruction set for better performance. Originated in the 1960's.  Wikipedia         

Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) The opposite of RISC. Originated in the 1960's.  Wikipedia         

Asynchronous DRAM (ADRAM) (legacy) First type of DRAM in use. Originated in the 1960s and in commonly in use until about 1997. Replaced by SDRAM.  Wikipedia         

Research Triangle Park (RTP) One of the world's largest research parks. Located in North Carolina. Founded in 1959.  Wikipedia         

Fortran Programming language. First manual for Fortran was published October 15, 1956. First Fortan compiler delivered in April 1957.  Wikipedia         

Steve Jobs Co-founder of Apple with Steve Wozniak. February 24, 1955 - October 5, 2011  Wikipedia         

phone freaking (phreaking) Faking the tones for long distance calls on an analog telephone network. Began in the United States during the 1950s.  Wikipedia  Netacad       

IBM 704 First mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware. Introduced in 1954.  Wikipedia  IBM       

IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine World’s first mass-produced computer. Announced 1953.  Wikipedia  This Day in Tech History       

Alan Cooper The father of Visual Basic. Born June 3, 1952.  Wikipedia         

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Home to the IBM Sequoia. Established 1952.  Website  Wikipedia       

Radia Perlman STP is based on an algorithm she invented. Born January 1, 1951.  Wikipedia         

Bayonet Neill–Concelman connector (BNC connector) (aka: British Naval Connector) Coaxial RF connector that was commonly used to attach stations to a 10Base2 (thinnet) network. Patented in 1951.  Wikipedia         

RTV-G-4 Bumper United States rocket. Bumper 8 was the first successful rocket to launch from Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950.  Wikipedia         

F connector (aka: F-type) Coaxial RF connector commonly used for cable television and modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or the older RG-59/U. Invented by Eric E. Winston in the early 1950s.  Wikipedia         

Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) Novel by George Orwell. Published June 8, 1949.  Wikipedia         

Fluke Manufactures testing equipment for electronics. Founded in 1948.  Wikipedia  Website       

John Walson Recognized as the founder of the cable television industry. Invented cable TV in the spring of 1948.  Wikipedia         

gyrator  Proposed in 1948 by Bernard D. H. Tellegen.  Wikipedia         

bug Error or defect. First "actual" bug found in the Harvard Mark II when a moth was trapped in a relay on September 9, 1947.  Wikipedia         

Harvard Mark II    Wikipedia         

Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) First electronic general-purpose computer. Announced February 14, 1946.  Wikipedia         

John Sculley  Third CEO of Apple from 1983-1993. Born April 6, 1939.  Wikipedia  Cult of Mac       

Adam Osborne Founder of Osborne Computer Corporation (OCC). March 6, 1939 - March 18, 2003.  Wikipedia         

Hewlett Packard (HP) Tech company based in Palo Alto, California. Founded January 1, 1939.  Website  Wikipedia       

War of the Worlds  The Mercury Theatre's radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells was broadcast on October 30, 1938.  Wikipedia         

Samsung  Founded March 1, 1938.  Wikipedia         

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Frist full-length animated feature film.  Produced by Walt Disney. Released December 21, 1937.  Wikipedia         

Atanasoff-Berry computer (ABC) First automatic electronic digital computer. Designed 1937 to solve systems of linear equations.  Wikipedia         

Andrew Grove (Andy Grove) Former CEO of Intel. September 2, 1936 - March 21, 2016  Wikipedia         

Ronald Wayne Co-founded Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. Born May 17, 1934.  Wikipedia         

Gordon Moore Known for Moore's law. Founded NM Electronics with Robert Noyce in 1968 which later became Intel Corporation. Born January 3, 1929  Wikipedia          

Robert Noyce  Co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in 1968. December 12, 1927 - June 3, 1990  Wikipedia         

The Jazz Singer  first feature-length motion picture with synchronized sound October 6, 1927.  Wikipedia         

pentode  Invented by Gilles Holst and Bernhard D.H. Tellegen in 1926.  Wikipedia         

Seymour Cray The father of supercomputing. September 28, 1925 - October 5, 1996  Wikipedia         

John Backus Directed the team that invented Fortran. Invented Backus-Naur form (BNF). December 3, 1924 - March 17, 2007  Wikipedia         

Jay Wright Forrester Developed what would become Random Access Memory Born July 14, 1918.  Wikipedia         

Enigma machine  Invented by Arthur Scherbius in 1918.  Wikipedia         

Alan Turing  June 23, 1912 - June 7, 1954  Wikipedia         

Light Emitting Diode (LED) Anode (+ long positive lead). Cathode (- short negative lead). Discovered by H. J. Round in 1907. Popularized by Nick Holonyak in 1962.  Wikipedia  YouTube (Make:)       

Grace Hopper  December 9, 1906 - January 1, 1992.  Wikipedia         

Xerox  Founded 1906.  Website  Wikipedia       

Harry Harlow Experimented with baby monkeys and comfort. (October 31, 1905 - December 6, 1981)  Wikipedia         

Konrad Lorenz Studied ducklings and the imprinting period (critical period). (November 7, 1903 - February 27, 1989)  Wikipedia         

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Published SHA. Founded in 1901  Website  Wikipedia       

Bernard D.H. Tellegen Inventor of the pentode & the gyrator. June 24, 1900 - August 30, 1990.  Wikipedia         

NEC  Founded as Nippon Electric Company July 17, 1899.  Website  Wikipedia  Computer History Museum     

General Electric (GE)  Founded April 15, 1892.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nintendo Japanese video game company. Founded as a playing card company September 23, 1889.  Wikipedia         

optical disc (OD) (disc) Formats include CD, DVD, Blu-ray, etc. Standard physical size is 12cm (4.7 inches). First recorded historical use of an optical disc was in 1884 when Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter recorded sound on a glass disc using a beam of light.  Wikipedia         

National Cash Register Now NCR Corporation. Founded in 1884  Wikipedia         

NCR Corporation  Founded in 1884.  Wikipedia         

Arthur Scherbius Inventor of the Enigma machine. October 30, 1878 - May 13, 1929.  Wikipedia         

Nikola Tesla  July 10, 1856 - January 7, 1943.  Wikipedia         

Submarine Telegraph Company Ran the first telegraph cable between England and France. Operaional November 13, 1850.  Wikipedia  HistoryofInformation.com  This day in Tech History     

Alexander Graham Bell Inventor of the first practical telephone. March 3, 1847 - August 2, 1922.  Wikipedia  The Guardian       

Mathew Brady  Opened his own photogrophy studio in New York in 1844. May 18, 1822 - January 15, 1896  Wikipedia         

John Pierpont Morgan (J. P. Morgan)  April 17, 1837 - March 31, 1913  Wikipedia         

Weber's Law ΔI = kI   Wikipedia         

inductor Coil of wire wrapped around a core, such as iron. Generates an electromagnetic field. Developed by Michael Faraday in 1831 when he discovered electromagnetic induction.  Wikipedia  YouTube (Make:)       

Antonio Meucci Inventor of the telephone. April 13 1808 - October 18 1889  Wikipedia         

Ernst Heinrich Weber German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. (June 24, 1795 - January 26, 1878)  Wikipedia         

Charles Babbage    Wikipedia  Computer History Museum       

Independence Day (aka: Fourth of July) Signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress of the United States July 4, 2017.  Wikipedia         

Cramer's rule Explicit formula for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns, valid whenever the system has a unique solution. Named after Gabriel Cramer who published the rule in 1750.  Wikipedia         

Gabriel Cramer Swiss mathematician known for Cramer's rule. July 31, 1704 - January 4, 1752.  Wikipedia         

Blaise Pascal French mathematician. Jun 19, 1623 - August 19, 1662.  Wikipedia         

Giovan Battista Bellaso Italian cryptologist. Born in 1505.  Wikipedia