168 results

NAC Appliance Manager (NAM)             

NAC framework    Cisco         

Name Server (NS)    Wikipedia         

NAND flash Type of flash   Wikipedia         

NAND gate    Wikipedia         

nano Text editor for UNIX based systems. Created by Chris Allegretta in 1999 under the name TIP.  Wikipedia  Website       

nano server    Website  Wikipedia       


NAT firewall Expands IP address range and hides addressing scheme. One of the first NAT filrewalls was the PIX firewall developed in 1994 and later bough by Cisco.  Wikipedia (Cisco PIX)         

NAT translations (xlates)    Netacad         

National Association of Broadcasters (NAB)             

National Cash Register Now NCR Corporation. Founded in 1884  Wikipedia         

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)    Wikipedia  Website       

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Published SHA. Founded in 1901  Website  Wikipedia       

nbtstat Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT).   Wikipedia  Netacad       

ncpa.cpl Command to open Network Properties in Windows. Introduced with Windows NT 4.0. July 31, 1996  Microsoft         

NCR Corporation  Founded in 1884.  Wikipedia         

NEC  Founded as Nippon Electric Company July 17, 1899.  Website  Wikipedia  Computer History Museum     

Nehalem Microarchitecture codename from Intel. Released November 2008.  Wikipedia         

Neighbor Discovery (ND)             

Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)    Wikipedia         

Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)             

Neighbor Solicitation (NS) ND message            

neighbor table Table in OSPF adjacency database. Lists neighboring routers. Can be viewed on IOS with show ip ospf neighbor.            

NEMA 5 Standard electrical outlet used in North America   Wikipedia         

NEMA Connector Standard AC power plug used in North America.   Wikipedia  NEMA Chart  NEMA Plug & Receptacle Configurations     

Neptune Codename for an unreleased version of Windows. Developed in 1999.  Wikipedia         

Nessus Proprietary vulnerability scanner and audit tool developed by Tenable Network Security. Free for personal use in a non-enterprise environment. Started by Renaud Deraison in 1998.  Website  Wikipedia       

nested virtualization Running a virtual machine inside another virtual machine.   Wikipedia  Microsoft Developer Network (Nested Virtualization)       

net share Command used to manage shared resources.   TechNet         

net start wuauserv    Website         

net stop wuauserv    Website         

net user Adds or modifies user accounts, or displays user account information. Examples:

net user Administrator /active yesEnables the Administrator user account.
net localgroup administrators {username} /add
   Microsoft Support (How to Use the Net User Command)  TechNet  Hacking-Tutorial.com     

NETBIOS Datagram Service (NBDS) (TCP/UDP port 137)            

NetBIOS Name Service (NBNS) (TCP/UDP port 138)   Wireshark Wiki         



NetFlow Cisco specific feature. Can be used to create baseline documentation.             




netplwiz  Adjust Windows user account settings including automatic login.    About.com       


netstat (aka: network statistics) Command-line utility the displays incoming and outgoing TCP connections, including port usage. Example:

netstat -aDisplays all active connections on which the device is listening.

NetStumbler Wireless network mapping tool.   Website  Wikipedia       




Network Access Control (NAC) Approach to endpoint security.   Wikipedia         

Network Access Server (NAS) Also known as an access server.   Wikipedia         

network address    Wikipdedia         

Network Address Translation (NAT) Remaps one IP address space into another. Three kinds of NAT: static, dynamic, and overload (PAT). Translation process:

Inside local private IP address being translated
Inside global public IP address referencing an inside device
Outside local private IP address referencing an outside device
Outside global public IP address referencing an outside device

 One of the first NAT appliances is the PIX firewall developed in 1994.  RFC 1631  Wikipedia (Network Address Translation)  Wikipedia (Cisco PIX)  YouTube (VambarInc)  How Stuff Works 

Network Address Translation 64 (NAT64) Similar to NAT for IPv4 but used for IPv6.   Wikipedia         

Network Administration Control (NAC) Cisco's version of Network Access Control.   Wikipedia         

Network Attached Storage (NAS) Essentially an easily set up file server.   Wikipedia         

network attack Can be unofficially categorized into three major categories:


Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR)    Cisco         

Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) Works at the OSI session layer (layer 5). Developed as an API.   Wikipedia         

Network Cloaking Hiding a network's Service Set Identifier (SSID) by disabling broadcasting. Not recommended as a way to secure a network.   Wikipedia         

Network Control Protocol (NCP)             

Network Discovery Protocol (NDP) Five main NDP messages.

Router Solicitation (RS)
Router Advertisement (RA)
Neighbor Solicitation (NS)
Neighbor Advertisement (NA)

Network File System (NFS) Distributed file system that allows access to files over a network in a similar manner to accessing a local file. Developed by Sun Microsystems. First defined in RFC 1094 March 1989.  Wikipedia  RFC 1094  Netacad     

Network Interface Controller (NIC) (aka: network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter, physical network interface, NIC card) Connects a computer to a network.   Wikipedia         

Network Interface Device (NID) Demarcation point between the carrier's local loop and the customer's premises wiring   Wikipedia         

Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) Type of Intrusion Detection System (IDS).   Wikipedia         

Network Layer (OSI Layer 3) Responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers. Addresses data messages and translates logical addresses into physical ones.   Wikipedia         

Network Layer Protocols IPv4 and IPv6 are the current protocols. IPX, AppleTalk, and CLNS/DECNeT are some other legacy protocols not often used.            

Network Load Balancing (NLB) (aka: dual-WAN routing or multihoming) Distributing the workload across multiple paths to provide fault tolerance and improve performance.   Wikipedia         

Network Management Protocol (NMP)             

Network Operating System (NOS) Specialized operating system for a network device such as a router, switch or firewall. Designed to support many users and share resources between them in a client-server architecture. Early examples of client-server operating systems include Novell NetWare, Solaris, Windows NT/2000/XP/Server 2003, HP-UX, AIX and Linux. This description of operating systems is now largely historical, as common operating systems include a network stack to support a client–server model.  Wikipedia  Netacad       

Network Operations Center (NOC) (aka: Network Management Center) Location used to monitor and control a network.   Wikipedia         

network route routing table entry that has a subnet mask equal to that of the classful mask.            

network shell (netsh) Command line utility in Windows used to modify the network configuration.   Wikipedia  TechNet (Using Netsh)       

Network Time Protocol (NTP) (UDP port 123) Synchronizes time across devices in the network. Helps when comparing syslog.   Wikipedia  Debian Wiki       

Network-Aware Applications Can use protocols to communicate with lower level protocols on the OSI and TCP/IP models. Examples include web browsers and Email clients.            

Neustar  Founded in 1996  Website  Wikipedia       

new line python: \n            

New Technology (NT)             

New Technology File System (NTFS) (Comically known as: Not The Fat System) Microsofts' proprietary file system. Released with Windows NT 3.1 July 27, 1993.  Wikipedia         

New-NetIPAddress PowerShell cmdlet used to add a new IP address.   TechNet         

New-NetRoute PowerShell cmdlet used to add an "A" route to the routing table.   TechNet         

Newforma Software that connects project information silos to eliminate waste, promote best practices, maximize profitability and enhance your reputation.    Website         

NeXT Company Steve Jobs created after being fired from Apple.            

Next Generation Encryption (NGE)    Cisco         

next hop The address of the next router interface.            

Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)             

Nexus 5X Smartphone manufactured by LG. First released October 22, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nexus 6P Smartphone manufactured by Huawei. First released September 29, 2015.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nginx open source HTTP server.   Nginx Wiki         

nibble 4 bits (half a byte)   Wikipedia         

nice Example: nice -n19 vi            

Nikola Tesla  July 10, 1856 - January 7, 1943.  Wikipedia         

Nimda Internet's fastest spreading worm.   Wikipedia         

Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) Novel by George Orwell. Published June 8, 1949.  Wikipedia         

Nintendo Japanese video game company. Founded as a playing card company September 23, 1889.  Wikipedia         

Nintendo 64 (N64) Video game console made by Nintendo. First released in Japan June 23, 1996.  Wikipedia         

Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) Video game console made by Nintendo. First released in Japan as the Family Computer July 15, 1983.  Wikipedia         

Nintendo Switch Video game console from Nintendo. Released March 3, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Wired     

NIST SP 800 30 framework Guide for conducting risk assessments. Rev. 1 published September 2012.  Website  Wikipedia       

NIST SP 800-37 Guide for applying the risk management framework.   Website         

NIST-approved digital signature algorithms NIST chooses approved algorithms based on public key techniques and ECC. The digital signature algorithms approved are DSA, RSA, and ECDSA.            

Nmap (Network Mapper) Free and open source port scanning utility used for network discovery and security auditing. Written by Gordon Lyon. Published September 1997.  Website  Wikipedia       

no shutdown command that turns a network devices interface on            

noclobber Shell parameter that will prevent clobbering a file. set -o noclobber (bash, ksh) or set noclobber (csh, tcsh)   Wikipedia         

node    Wikipedia         

Node Package Manager (npm) Package manager for Node.js. First released January 12, 2010.  Website  Wikipedia       

node port (N_Port)    Wikipedia         

Node.js Open-source, cross-platform runtime environment created by Ryan Dahl. First released release May 27, 2009.  Website  Wikipedia       


Nokia 8 Smartphone from Nokia. Announced August 16, 2017. Released September 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nokia 8 Sirocco An update to the Nokia 8 smartphone. Announced February 25, 2018 at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2018.  Website  Wikipedia       

Nokia 8110 Phone famously featured in the movie The Matrix. Announced September 9, 1996.  Wikipedia         

Nokia 8110 4G  Announced February 25, 2018 at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2018.  Wikipedia         

Nokia Lumia 1020  Released July 26, 2013.  Wikipedia  iFixit        

Nokia Lumia 2520 Windows-based tablet from Nokia. Released November 21, 2013.  Wikipedia         

non-breaking space & nbsp; Adds a space in HTML.   W3Schools         

Non-Broadcast Muilti-Access (NBMA) network Multiple routers connected in a network such as frame relay that does not allow broadcasts.   Wikipedia         

Non-existent Domain (NXDOMAIN)    DNS Knowledge         

Non-volatile BIOS memory Used to store the BIOS configuration. Previously stored on CMOS, now uses flash memory to store the config.  Wikipedia         

Non-Volatile Memory express (NVMe) (aka: NVM express)   Website  Wikipedia  PC World     

Non-Volatile Memory Host Controller Interface (NVMHCI)    Website  Wikipedia       

Non-Volatile Random-Access Memory (NVRAM) Non-volatile. Does not lose it's contents when powered off. In networking devices, NVRAM is used to store the start-up configuration file.   Wikipedia         

nonce    Wikipedia         

nondeterministic Does not care what media (fiber, wireless, twisted pair...) it uses. Media independent.            

nonrepudiation (digital signature) Similar to authentication. Cannot refute or "repudiate" the validity of a message.   Wikipedia         

Northbridge Chipset on a motherboard. Controlls access to the RAM and comunication between the CPU and I/O.   Wikipedia  Netacad       

Not AND (NAND) (aka: Negative AND)   Wikipedia         

not equal to Commonly represented by <> or !=.   Wikipedia         

NOT gate (aka: inverter)   Wikipedia         

Not The Fat System (NTFS) An unofficial name for the New Technology File System.            

Notepad A text editor for Windows.            


Novell  Acquired by Micro Focus International November, 2014.  Wikipedia         

nslookup Command to manually query the name servers to resolve a given hostname. Can also be used to troubleshoot name servers.            

NT LAN Manager (NTLM) Suite of Microsoft security protocols intended to provide authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users. The NTLM protocol suite is implemented in a Security Support Provider, which combines the LAN Manager authentication protocol, NTLMv1, NTLMv2 and NTLM2 Session protocols in a single package. Whether these protocols are used or can be used on a system is governed by Group Policy settings, for which different versions of Windows have different default settings. NTLM passwords are considered weak because they can be brute-forced very easily with modern hardware. Successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft LAN Manager (LANMAN).  Wikipedia         

NT1 ISDN device that interconnects a 4-wire ISDN circuit with a 2-wire ISDN circuit            

null Used to specify no value.            

Null scan Nmap TCP scan with all the packet flags are turned off. Does not set any bits (TCP flag header is 0).   Nmap         

null0 ( The bit bucket. Packets that don            

NVIDIA  Founded April 1993.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce 256 First GPU in the GeForce family. Released October 11, 1999.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce 8800 GTX GPU from NVIDIA. Released November 8, 2006.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GT 1030 Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released May 17, 2017  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released October 25, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050Ti Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released October 25, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 3GB Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released August 18, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 6GB Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released July 19, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA. Released June 10, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti Pascal architecture GPU from NVIDIA with 8 GBs of memory. Released November 2, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 GPU from NVIDIA. Released May 27, 2016.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti GPU from NVIDIA. Announced March 1, 2017. Released March 10, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia  Overclock3D     

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 280  Released June 17, 2008.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 295  Released January 8, 2009.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480  Released March 26, 2010.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580  Released November 9, 2010.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 590  Released March 24, 2011.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680  Released March 22, 2012.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 690  Released April 29, 2012.  Wikipedia         

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 GPU from NVIDIA. Released September 18, 2014.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070  Announced at Gamescon 2018 in Germany August 20, 2018. Released September 20, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080  Announced at Gamescon 2018 in Germany August 20, 2018. Released September 20, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti  Announced at Gamescon 2018 in Germany August 20, 2018. Released September 20, 2018.  Website  Wikipedia  The Verge     

NVIDIA Tesla V100 First Volta GPU from NVIDIA. Announced May 10, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

NVIDIA Titan Xp GPU from NVIDIA. Released April 6, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

NX-OS OS developed by Cisco for their Nexus line of switches.   Wikipedia         

N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV) Allows multiple Fiber Channel N_Port IDs to share a single N_Port.   Wikipedia