PCI Express 5.0  PCI-SIG officially announced the release of the final PCI-Express 5.0 specification May 29, 2019  Wikipedia         

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) (authentication) Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for digital signatures, based on the mathematical concept of modular exponentiation and the discrete logarithm problem. DSA is a variant of the Schnorr and ElGamal signature schemes. DSA signature generation is faster than DSA signature verification. Attributed to David W. Kravitz. Filed under U.S. Patent 5,231,668 July 26, 1991. Adopted by the U.S. government in 1993 with FIPS 186.  Wikipedia         

Bruce Schneier American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. Born January 15, 1963.  Website  Wikipedia       

Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key (black) (CMYK) color model    Wikipedia         

DC-to-DC converter Converts DC from one voltage level to another.   Wikipedia         

Deadlock waiting for a process that never finishes.   Wikipedia         

Dialed Number Identification Service (DNIS)    Wikipedia         

Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)    Wikipedia         

Digital Signal 3 (DS3) 44.736Mbps   Wikipedia         

Digital Signal 1 (DS1) (T1 line) 1.544Mbps bandwidth   Wikipedia  T1Rex       

Digital Signal 0 (DS0) Adapter    Cisco         

Digital Rights Management (DRM)             

Digital Serial Interface (DSI) Protocol for controlling lighting in buildings.   Wikipedia         

Digital Signal 0 (DS0) Dedicated line (not shared) at 64Kbps. 24 bundled is a DS1 line or T1 line.   Wikipedia         

subquery Query linked to another query.   Wikipedia         

Network Operating System (NOS) Specialized operating system for a network device such as a router, switch or firewall. Designed to support many users and share resources between them in a client-server architecture. Early examples of client-server operating systems include Novell NetWare, Solaris, Windows NT/2000/XP/Server 2003, HP-UX, AIX and Linux. This description of operating systems is now largely historical, as common operating systems include a network stack to support a client–server model.  Wikipedia  Netacad       

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) [aka: Computer Emergency Readiness Team, Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT)] Expert group that handles computer security incidents. USA CERT created by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and run by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at the Carnegie Mellon University. CERT name first used in 1988 by the CERT Coordination Center (CERT-CC) at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU).  SEI Website  Wikipedia       

Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6) ICMP for IPv6            

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)    Wikipedia  Website       

Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)    Website  Wikipedia       

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)             

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)             

Internet Header Length (IHL)             

Internet Information Server (IIS)    Wikipedia         

Internet Information Services (IIS)    Wikipedia         

Internet Key Exchange (IKE) (UDP port 500, RFC 2409) Used to set up a security association (SA) in the IPsec protocol suite to authenticate users and devices. Builds on the Oakley protocol and ISAKMP. Uses X.509 certificates for authentication. Several types of authentication: username, password, one-time password, biometrics, PSK, and digital certificates. Originally defined by the IETF in RFC 2407, RFC 2408 and RFC 2409 November 1998.  Wikipedia  RFC 2407  RFC 2408  RFC 2409   

Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Phase 1 Authentication. 3 keys exchanged. Main mode or aggressive mode.            

Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Phase 2 Key Exchange. IPsec transform sets. unidirectional IPsec SAs.            

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) (IMAP: port 143, IMAPS: port 993) Protocol for email retrieval. IMAP Secure (IMAPS) operates over SSL or TLS. Designed by Mark Crispin in 1986.  Wikipedia         

Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)  Proposed by Novell in 1996.  Wikipedia         

Internet Protocol (IP) The network layer service implemented by the TCP/IP protocol suite. (Connectionless, Best Effort (unreliable), Media Independent.)   Wikipedia  YouTube       

Internet Protocol Flow Information Export (IPFIX)             

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) Framework of open standards defining how a VPN can be configured and secured. Provides data integrity, peer authentication, data confidentiality (encryption). Not bound to any encryption, authentication, security algorithms, or keying technology. Uses Authentication Headers (AH), Encapsulating Security Payloads (ESP), and Security Associations (SA) as part of its security architecture. The Cisco IPsec implementation uses DES and 3DES in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode. Works at the network layer (Layer 3) encapsulating IP packets. Uses a plaintext Layer 3 header to allow for routing compatibility. When configuring, a few basic parts must be provided: IPsec protocol, confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and secure key exchange.   Wikipedia         

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) Authentication Guaranties message comes from the right person and was not forged. (PSK, RSA)            

Intel Core i7 7700K Kaby Lake CPU from Intel. 4 Cores, 8 Threads, 8M Cache, up to 4.50 GHz, 91W TDP Released January 3, 2017.  Intel ARK  Wikipedia       

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) Confidentiality encrypts traffic so it can not be read. (encryption if ESP: DES, 3DES, AES, SEAL)            

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) Configuration Steps: ACLs, ISAKMP (IKE) policy, IPsec transform set, crypto ACL, crypto map.

   Netacad (Configure Compatible ACLs)  Netacad (IKE Parameters for ISAKMP)  Neatcad (Pre-Shared Keys)  Netacad (Transform Sets)  Netacad (Crypto ACL)  Netacad (Crypto Map)

Intel Core i9-7980XE CPU from Intel. Announced at Computex 2017 May 30, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)    Wikipedia         

IN Equality operator. Can be used in place of INTERSECT if IN is not supported by the DBMS.            

International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) [originally called Improved Proposed Encryption Standard (IPES)] Symmetric-key block cipher. Intended as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES). IDEA is a minor revision of an earlier cipher Proposed Encryption Standard (PES). Designed by James Massey of ETH Zurich and Xuejia Lai and was first described in 1991.  Wikipedia         

Jetico Encryption Software & Wiping Software   Website         

Lock It Down Locks your 'Content Sensitive' files and folders quickly and professionally using 128-bit Thayer encryption, which make it unable for others to view or use them without your consent, which results in a clean conscience and instant peace of mind.   Website         

kernel The core of an OS.   Wikipedia         

Virtual Private Network (VPN) IP tunnels that extend a private network across a public network, usually the internet. Enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Typically encrypted but does not need to be, such as in the case of GRE and Frame Relay. The encryption algorithm combines message text with a key to make the message unreadable by unauthorized receivers. Two kinds of VPNs: site-to-site and remote access. Can operate at OSI Layer 2 (Frame Relay, ATM, HDLC, PPP) or OSI Layer 3 (GRE, MPLS, IPsec).   Wikipedia         

chargeback Policy used by IT departments to allocate and/or bill the costs associated with each department's or division's usage. As of 2011, the chargeback mechanisms are often controversial in organizations.  Wikipedia         

AMD EPYC Family of server chips from AMD based on the Zen microarchitecture. Announced May 16, 2017. Released June 20, 2017.  Website  Wikipedia       

E3 2019  June 11-13 in Las Angeles.  Website  Wikipedia       

NT LAN Manager (NTLM) Suite of Microsoft security protocols intended to provide authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users. The NTLM protocol suite is implemented in a Security Support Provider, which combines the LAN Manager authentication protocol, NTLMv1, NTLMv2 and NTLM2 Session protocols in a single package. Whether these protocols are used or can be used on a system is governed by Group Policy settings, for which different versions of Windows have different default settings. NTLM passwords are considered weak because they can be brute-forced very easily with modern hardware. Successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft LAN Manager (LANMAN).  Wikipedia         

aggregate functions (COUNT, MIN, MAX, and AVG) special functions that perform arithmetic computations over a set of rows. Usually used in conjunction with a GROUP BY clause to group the output of aggregate computations by one or more attribute rows that match a given condition.            

WHERE SQL clause that narrows query results. Can be used with SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements to restrict rows affected by the DDL command.    Wikipedia         

column list Represents one or more column names separated by commas. May also include computed columns, aliases, and aggregate functions.            

column Each database table column represents an attribute. Each column has a distinct name.            

SELECT SQL statement that returns a set of records from one or more tables. Main data retrieval command in SQL.   Wikipedia         

INSERT SQL command used in databases to add new rows to tables.            

Data Manipulation Commands (DML) Allow you to add, modify, and delete rows from tables. Basic commands are; SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, COMMIT, and, ROLLBACK.             

data definition commands Allows you to create tables and indexes. Commands are; CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX, ALTER TABLE, DROP TABLE, DROP INDEX. Many SQL constraints can be used with columns.            

ANSI SQL data types Basic types include; NUMBER, NUMERIC, INTEGER, CHAR, VARCHAR, and DATE. Support is different in each RDBMS.   Microsoft Access Equivalent ANSI SQL Data Types         

SQL commands Can be divided into two overall categories: data definition language (DDL) and data manipulation language (DML) commands.            

F8 2019  April 30 - May 1  Website         

TO_NUMBER Oracle function used to convert a character string into a number. Digits are represented by “9”.            

Microsoft Build 2018  May 7-9.  Website         

Microsoft Build 2019  May 6-8 in Seattle, WA at the Washington State Convention Center.  Website         

composite key Multiple-attribute key.            

Avengers: Infinity War  Released April 27, 2018.  IMDB         

Avengers: Endgame  Released April 26, 2019.  IMDB         

VMworld 2019  August 25-29 in San Francisco.  Website         

VMworld 2018  August 26-30 in Las Vegas.  Website         

Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS)    Wikipedia         

datagram Basic transfer unit in a packet-switched network.

OSI Layer datagam
Layer 4 segment
Layer 3 packet
Layer 2 frame
Layer 1 Chip (CDMA)

Database Handle (DBH) ($dbh)            

Database Description (DBD) One of the OSPF protocol messages.            

database A collection of data.   Wikipedia         

data type A classification identifying the type of data. (i.e.    Wikipedia         

WWDC 2019 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference June 3-7 in San Jose, CA.  Website  Wikipedia       

query (aka: Information retrieval) A request for information. A question.   Wikipedia (Query)  Wikipedia (Information Retrieval)       

simple attribute Attribute that cannot be subdivided.            

HAVING clause The HAVING clause is used to restrict the output of a GROUP BY query by applying a conditional criteria to the grouped rows.            

Updatable View Can be used to update attributes in the base tables that are used in the view.            

MINUS Relational set operator. SQL command that combines rows from two queries and returns only the rows that appear in the first set but not in the second.            

correlated subquery Subquery that executes once for each row in the outer query.            

John Sculley  Third CEO of Apple from 1983-1993. Born April 6, 1939.  Wikipedia  Cult of Mac       

Apple Special Event "It's show time." Held at the Steve Jobs Theater in the Apple Park campus March 25, 2019.  Wikipedia         

Google I/O 2019  May 7 - May 9 at the Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View, CA.  Website  Wikipedia       

World Wide Web (WWW) (aka: the Web, port 80) HTTP/web services. Information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, such as, which may be interlinked by hypertext, and are accessible via the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users via a software application called a web browser. Invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee while working for CERN by submitting Information Management: A Proposal on March 12, 1989.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 60  Released alongside Firefox 60 ESR May 9, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 59  Released March 13, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Firefox 61  Released January 23, 2018.  Wikipedia         

Homebrew Computer Club Early computer hobbyist group in Menlo Park, California. Met from March 1975 to December 1986. First meeting held on March 5, 1975.  Wikipedia         

foreign key Values are required to match the primary key of another table. Proper use of foreign keys is crucial to controlling data redundancy.   Wikipedia         

table (aka: relation) Collection of related data held in columns and rows within a database. Persistent representation of a logical relation in a database. Table and relation are used interchangeably because the relational model's creator, E. F. Codd, used the two terms as synonyms.   Wikipedia         

AREA Named section of permanent storage space that is reserved to store the database. Used in DB2.            

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) Type of database management system (DBMS) based on the relational model of data. Most databases in widespread use today are based on this model.   Wikipedia         

Database management systems (DBMS) Software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. The order of rows and columns is not important.   Wikipedia         

while loop Loop that runs while it is true.   Wikipedia         

web threat Any threat that uses the World Wide Web to facilitate cybercrime.   Wikipedia         

Watchdog Timer (WDT) Timer used to detect and recover from computer malfunctions. Often found in embedded computers.   Wikipedia         

wardialing Scanning for telephone numbers with a modem.   Wikipedia         

Volume Table Of Contents (VTOC) IBM mainframe storage architecture.   Wikipedia         

VMWare ESX  Originated as an abbreviation of Elastic Sky X. In September 2004, the replacement for ESX was internally called VMvisor, but later changed to ESXi (as the "i" in ESXi stood for "integrated").  Wikipedia         

Virtual Machine (VM)    Wikipedia  Ubuntu Community Help Wiki       

VMWare ESXi Enterprise-class, type-1 hypervisor developed by VMware.   Wikipedia         

ASUS Computer hardware manufacturer.   Website  Wikipedia       

PC/104 Embedded computer standards which define both form factors and computer buses. PC/104 is intended for specialized environments where a small, rugged computer system is required. The standard is modular, and allows consumers to stack together boards from a variety of COTS manufacturers to produce a customized embedded system. Originally devised by Ampro in 1987 (led by CTO Rick Lehrbaum), and later standardized by the PC/104 Consortium in 1992.  Wikipedia         

uptime The amount of time a computer has been on since the last reboot. Can be viewed on UNIX-like systems with the uptime command. Use wmic os get lastbootuptime (written as: yyyymmddhhmmss.nnn) for Windows.   Wikipedia         

Object Management Group (OMG) Developed the UML standards.   Wikipedia         

NetBIOS Name Service (NBNS) (TCP/UDP port 138)   Wireshark Wiki         

NETBIOS Datagram Service (NBDS) (TCP/UDP port 137)            

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)    Wikipedia  Website       

National Association of Broadcasters (NAB)             

MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4) File format used for audio and video.   Wikipedia         

Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)    Wikipedia         

modulo Returns the remainder.   Wikipedia         

Matroska Video Stream (MKV) Other file extensions: .mkv .mk3d .mka .mks   Wikipedia  Website     

Live Tile Presents information such as the weather or email notifications without needing to launch an app.   Wikipedia         

Live CD OS installation that can boot from an optical disc.   Wikipedia         


firmware Stored in non-volatile memory.    Wikipedia         

file system How data is stored.   Wikipedia         

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Protocol used for transferring files between systems.   Wikipedia         

FileMaker Pro Crossplatform DBMS.   Wikipedia  Website       

GNU's Not UNIX (GNU)    Wikipedia         

First In, First Out (FIFO) Memory management technique.   Wikipedia         

Groove folder Part of the late Microsoft Office Groove.   Wikipedia