#!/bin/sh Line used in a script to execute with the Bourne shell, or a compatible shell, with path /bin/sh.   Wikipedia         

$host.PrivateData.ErrorBackgroundColor Error background color in PowerShell.            


/? displays help            

AAA IOS Configuration

   Wikipedia  RFC 6377  Cisco  Netacad   

Add-Computer PowerShell command to add a computer to a domain or workgroup.

PS C:\> Add-Computer -DomainName Domain01 -Restart
PS C:\> Add-Computer -WorkGroupName WORKGROUP-A

adduser Bash command to add a user account. sudo adduser username   Linuxers         

append Adds to the end of a file. Use >> instead of >.   Wikipedia         

apropos Linux utility used to search for other utilities.            

arp -a DOS command used to list current ARP cache.            

arp -d DOS command used to refresh the ARP cache.            

assoc Command that displays or modifies file extension associations.   Wikipedia  Microsoft Support       

at Command that schedules other commands and programs to run on a computer.   Wikipedia  Wikipedia       

ATTRIB DOS command that displays or changes file attributes.   Wikipedia         

background (bg) Send a job to the background.   Website  Wikipedia       

bang bang (!!) Executes the previous command in UNIX.   Wikipedia         

cacls Windows command that displays or modifies ACLs of files.   Wikipedia         

call Command that calls one batch program from another.   Microsoft         

cd Command that displays the name of or changes the current directory.   Wikipedia         

change mode (chmod) chmod UNIX command used to change access permissions. Example:

chmod -x script_nameMakes a script executable
   Wikipedia  chmod Tutorial     

chcp DOS command that displays or sets the active code page number.            

CHDIR Displays the name of or changes the current directory.   Wikipedia         

CHKDSK DOS command that checks a disk and displays a status report.   Wikipedia         

CHKNTFS DOS command that displays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.   Wikipedia         

chsh Linux command to change the shell.            

clear Command that clears the screen.            

clock set Set the time and date. Use show clock to display the time in IOS.            

cls DOS command that clears the screen.            

cmd DOS command that starts a new instance of the Windows command interpreter.            

Cmdlet Commands used in PowerShell. Follow a Verb-Noun naming convention. (i.e. Get-Help.)   Wikipedia  Microsoft Developer       

color DOS command that sets the default console foreground and background colors. (color a, color b2...)            

COMP Compares the contents of two files or sets of files.            

COMPACT DOS command that displays or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions.            

Compare-Object (aliases: compare, diff) PowerShell cmdlet that compares two sets of objects. Example:

Compare-Object $foo $bar

concatenation (cat) Can show one or more files together in the same output. The command split can separate files while cat can merge files.   Wikipedia  YouTube       

CONVERT DOS command that converts FAT volumes to NTFS.             

copy Command that copies one or more files to another location in DOS or IOS. Use cp for Bash.            

cp Command that copies one or more files to another location in Bash. (copy for DOS.)            

createinstallmedia Terminal command used to create a bootable installer for macOS.   Apple Support         

date Command that displays or sets the date and time in many operating systems. Examples:

Linux: sudo date -s "Jul 5 08:10"
Windows: date (Output is the same as Get-Date in PowerShell)
   Wikipedia  TechNet       

dd Vi command used to delete the current line.            

ddate Shows the Discordian date.       

debug ip bgp             

debug ip nat s=source address, a.b.c.d--->w.x.y.z=source address--->translated address, d=destination ip address, [xxxx]=ip identification number            

del Command that deletes one or more files. Use rm in UNIX.   Wikipedia         

dir Command that displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory. Use ls in UNIX-based systems or Windows through PowerShell.   Wikipedia  TechNet       

DISKCOMP Compares the contents of two floppy disks.            

DISKCOPY Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.            

DISKPART DOS command used to manage disk partitions.    TechNet         

dism.exe /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth Command that will attempt to repair your corrupted file from a trusted online source (Windows Update). Requires administrative privileges.   Tom's Hardware         

DOSKEY Edits command lines, recalls Windows commands, and creates macros.            

dpkg (Debian package) A command that can be used to install and remove packages in a Debian based OS. It can also be used to view the currently installed packages.   Wikipedia         

dpkg-reconfigure tzdata Reconfigure the date and timezone on a Debian-based Linux distribution. Example:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
   Raspberry Pi Forums         

echo A command that prints to the display whatever it is told to say or turns command echoing on or off.

echo $0Linux command that will return the name of shell you are working in or the currently running program.

enable Command that enters privilege EXEC mode on a network device.            

Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature PowerShell command to enable features in Windows. Example:

Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Microsoft-Hyper-V Enable Hyper-V

ENDLOCAL Command Prompt command that ends localization of environment changes in a batch file.            

erase Command that deletes one or more files.            

exit Quits the CMD.EXE program (command interpreter).            

fc Command that compares two files or sets of files, and displays the differences between them.            

fi Closes an if statement in Bash.   Stack Overflow         

File Checksum Integrity Verifier (FCIV) Command-prompt utility that computes and verifies MD5 or SHA-1 cryptographic hash values of files.   Microsoft Support         

find Command that searches for a text string in a file or files.            

findstr Command that searches for strings in files.            

FOR DOS command that runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.            

ForEach-Object PowerShell cmdlet.   TechNet         

foreground (fg) Send a job to the foreground.   Wikipedia         

form Used to gather information.            

FORMAT DOS command that formats a disk for use.            

Format Set of PowerShell cmdlets that allow you to control which properties are displayed for particular objects.   TechNet         

FROM DOS command.            

FROM SQL command.            

FTYPE DOS command that displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.   Wikipedia         

Get-Date PowerShell command that displays the date and time.   TechNet         


Get-History PowerShell cmdlet that shows the history of the shell.            

Get-Host PowerShell command that information about the installed version of PowerShell.   StackOverflow         

Get-Item WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts             

Get-Member (gm) PowerShell cmdlet. Displays the properties and methods of an object.            

Get-NetConnectionProfile PowerShell cmdlet that gets a connection profile. Introduced in Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8.  TechNet         

Get-NetIPAddress PowerShell cmdlet that displays the IP address configuratoin. Introduced in Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8.  TechNet         

Get-NetIPConfiguration PowerShell cmdlet.            

Get-Process PowerShell command to show the running processes on a computer.    TechNet         

Get-SmbServerConfiguration PowerShell cmdlet used to check the status of SMB. Get-SmbServerConfiguration | Select EnableSMB1Protocol   Microsoft Support         

Get-WindowsDriver PowerShell cmdlet that displays driver information. Example: Get-WindowsDriver -Online -All   TechNet         

Get-WmiObject SoftwareLicensingService PowerShell command that returns the Windows Licence Key.   The Windows Club         

Get-WmiObject Win32_ComputerSystem Display system information in PowerShell.            

git commit             

git config --list             

git init Command in Git to start tracking a project and create the .git directory.   Git Documentation         

git log             

GNU zip (gzip) Compresses files but not directories. Initially released October 31, 1992  Wikipedia         

GOTO Jump between parts of a program.   Wikipedia         

gpupdate Command to update group policy.


GRAFTABL Enables Windows to display an extended character set in graphics.            

grep Utility that searches strings of text using regular expressions. First released November 1974.  Wikipedia         

help Command that provides Help information. Examples include;


HOME ~ Environment variable for the home directory in Bash. Use echo $HOME or echo ~ to display.            

hostname The network name of a host. Can be show in the CLI of Windows and UNIX-Like operating systems by entering hostname.   Wikipedia         

if Performs conditional processing in programs or batch files. Pseudo code: if red {do option 1} else {do option 2}   Wikipedia         

ifconfig Command that displays network information such as the current IP address on a UNIX based computer Use ipconfig on Windows.   Wikipedia         

include PHP statement. include 'example.php'   PHP Documentation         

inline-block CSS value for the display property. Ued to arange boxes.   W3Schools         

Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell command to install rolls, services, or features to Windows Server.

Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell -RestartInstall a GUI on Server Core
   TechNet  TechNet (Windows Server Installation Options)       

interface loopback Cisco IOS command used to configure a loopback address.

Router(config)# interface loopback value

   Wikipedia  Cisco       

INTO SQL command used in databases to specify a table name.            

Invoke-Expression PowerShell cmdlet. Invoke-Expression or iex            

Invoke-WebRequest PowerShell cmdlet. Invoke-WebRequest or iwr            

ip route Command to configure a static route.

IOS syntax: destination network-address subnet-mask {next hop router's ip address | exit interface}

ipaddress Python library for manipulating IP addresses.   Python Documentation         

ipconfig Command that displays network information such as the current IP address on a Windows based computer. Use ifconfig on a UNIX-based machine.

/all Display full configuration information.
/displaydns Display the contents of the DNS Resolver Cache.
/flushdns Purges the DNS Resolver cache.
/registerdns Refreshes all DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names.
/release Release the IPv4 address for the specified adapter.
/release6 Release the IPv6 address for the specified adapter.
/renew Renew the IPv4 address for the specified adapter.
/renew6 Renew the IPv6 address for the specified adapter.
/setclassid Modifies the DHCP class id.
/setclassid6 Modifies the IPv6 DHCP class id.
/showclassid Displays all the DHCP class IDs allowed for adapter.
/showclassid6 Displays all the IPv6 DHCP class IDs allowed for adapter.
   Wikipedia  Microsoft TechNet       

IS NOT NULL SQL operator for data that is present or known.   W3Schools         

IS NULL SQL operator for data that is missing or unknown.   W3Schools         

label DOS command that creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.            

LIKE SQL   W3Schools         

Line Printer (lpr) Command that sends a file to the printer. Exameple: lpr foobar   CUPS  Microsoft       

lm-sensors CLI tool that can monitor temperature, fan speed, and voltage.   Ubuntu Community  Websiste       

ls UNIX command that displays the contents of a directory.   Wikipedia         

mkdir Command that creates a directory.   Wikipedia         

MODE Configures a system device.            

MORE Displays output one screen at a time. Can be used to open files in the command line.   Wikipedia         

mountvol Creates, deletes, or lists a volume mount point. Mountvol is a way to link volumes without requiring a drive letter.   TechNet         

MOVE Moves one or more files from one directory to another directory in DOS. Use mv in UNIX-based operating systems.

syntax: move [file name to move] [destination]


mv UNIX command that moves files. Use move on Windows-based systems.

syntax: mv (file name to move) (destination)

nbtstat Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT).   Wikipedia  Netacad       

ncpa.cpl Command to open Network Properties in Windows. Introduced with Windows NT 4.0. July 31, 1996  Microsoft         

net start wuauserv    Website         

net stop wuauserv    Website         

net user Adds or modifies user accounts, or displays user account information. Examples:

net user Administrator /active yesEnables the Administrator user account.
net localgroup administrators {username} /add
   Microsoft Support (How to Use the Net User Command)  TechNet     

netplwiz  Adjust Windows user account settings including automatic login.       

netstat (aka: network statistics) Command-line utility the displays incoming and outgoing TCP connections, including port usage. Example:

netstat -aDisplays all active connections on which the device is listening.

network shell (netsh) Command line utility in Windows used to modify the network configuration.   Wikipedia  TechNet (Using Netsh)       

new line python: \n            

nice Example: nice -n19 vi            

no shutdown command that turns a network devices interface on            

noclobber Shell parameter that will prevent clobbering a file. set -o noclobber (bash, ksh) or set noclobber (csh, tcsh)   Wikipedia         

nslookup Command to manually query the name servers to resolve a given hostname. Can also be used to troubleshoot name servers.            

or ||            

ORDER BY             

passwd Command to change a password in Linux.            

PATH Environment variable that displays or sets a search path for executable files.   Wikipedia  LINFO       

PAUSE DOS command that suspends processing of a batch file and displays a message.            

popd Restores the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD.   Wikipedia         

POST POST and PUT are used to upload data files to the web server. When a user submits data in a form the POST message is sent along with the data.            

PowerShell Windows Command Prompt with a more Linux feel. Comes in blue by default. First released November 14, 2006.  Website  Wikipedia     

PRINT DOS command that prints a text file.            

process status (ps) Displays the currently-running processes.   Wikipedia         

PROMPT Changes the Windows Command Prompt.            


pstree Shows the running processes as a tree in Bash.   Wikipedia         

PSVersionTable ($PSVersionTable) PowerShell variable that contains information regarding the installed PowerShell version.


pushd Saves the current directory then changes it.   Wikipedia         

PUT POST and PUT are used to upload data files to the web server. PUT uploads resources or content to the web server such as an image or file.            

pwd Command that prints the working directory.            

question mark (? Can be used in IOS to show the rest of a command.            

rand =rand(x,y) Adds random text to a word document.            

raw_input() Wait for 'Enter' to be pressed before terminating in Python.   StackOverflow         

rd Command that removes a directory.            

Read-Host PowerShell cmdlet that prompts a user for input.   TechNet         

RECOVER DOS command that recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.   Wikipedia         

REM Command that records comments (remarks) in batch files or CONFIG.SYS.            

ren Bash Command that renames a file or files in.   Wikipedia         

rename DOS command that renames a file or files.   Wikipedia         

Rename-Computer PowerShell command to change the hostname after restart.

Rename-Computer -NewName DC1 -Restart

Rename-Item (aka: ren, rni) PowerShell cmdlet used to rename files and folders.   TechNet  Wikipedia       

replace DOS command that replaces files.            

Restart-Computer PowerShell command that restarts Windows.            

Restart-NetAdapter PowerShell command to restart a network adapter by disabling and then re-enabling the network adapter.

PS C:\> Restart-NetAdapter -Name "Ethernet 2"


Restart-Service PowerShell command to restart services.

Restart-Service -Name Spooler -ForceRestart the print spooler.

Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) Command rsop   TechNet         

rm UNIX command to delete. Use del in DOS or OS/2.   Wikipedia         

rmdir DOS command that removes a directory.            

Robust File Copy for Windows (ROBOCOPY)    Wikipedia  Microsoft TechNet       

route -n Linux command to show the routing table. (Use route print for Windows.)            

route print Shows the routing table in Windows. (Use route -n for Linux.)            

router eigrp IOS command used to enable EIGRP (no router eigrp turns it off)            

router rip command used on routers to enable RIP            

rsync Backup utility for Linux-based computers.   Wikipedia         

scutil Command used on a Mac to set the hostname.   OS X Man Pages         

Secure Copy (SCP) (TCP port 22) Secure way to copy files between two computers. Example: scp SourceFile user@host:directory/TargetFile   Wikipedia  John Veldboom       

SELECT SQL statement that returns a set of records from one or more tables. Main data retrieval command in SQL.   Wikipedia         

SET Displays, sets, or removes Windows environment variables.            

Set-Date PowerShell command that changes the date or time.   TechNet         

Set-Item WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts -Value hostname -Force             

Set-ItemProperty PowerShell cmdlet. Can be used to change registry values. Introduced in PowerShell 3.0.  TechNet         

Set-NetConnectionProfile PowerShell cmdlet that changes the network category of a connection profile. Introduced in Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8.  TechNet         

Set-SmbServerConfiguration PowerShell cmdlet used to disable SMB1. Set-SmbServerConfiguration -EnableSMB1Protocol $false   Microsoft Support         

SETLOCAL Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file.            

show commands Commands in Cisco IOS that show.., stuff.

show arp IOS command to show the ARP table.
show interfaces
show ip eigrp neighbors
show ip eigrp topology
show ip interface brief Command to show a list of interfaces and any IPv4 addresses that might be assigned to them. Use show ipv6 interface brief to show IPv6 interfaces
show ip ospf process ID, router, id, OSPF SPF, OSPF, area information
show ip ospf database Shows LSDB area, link id
show ip ospf interface Shows details about all OSPF enabled interfaces the router ID.
show ip ospf interface interface id Details about a particular OSPF enabled interface
show ip ospf interface brief Concise OSPF-related information of OSPF-enabled interfaces, OSPF process id, area, cost, brief
show ip ospf neighbor OSPF adjacencies and the router IDs of those routers
show ip protocols Shows the protocols on a router. OSPF process ID, router ID, advertised networks, neighbors the router is receiving updates from, and the administrative distance.
show ip route Command used to display IPv4 routing table of a router
show ip route eigrp
show ip route ospf Shows only OSPF routes in the routing table
show ipv6 route Shows the IPv6 routing table on a network device
show running configuration Shows the running configuration file
show flash Contents of the flash
show boot Location of the configuration file
show version Current IOS version

show ip bgp ipv4 unicast             

show license             

show spanning-tree             

shutdown Command that turns a network devices interface off.            

Shutdown /o Go to the advanced boot options menu and restart the computer. Must be used with /r option. Introduced in Windows 8.  MSDN  The Windows Club       

socket.gethostname() Prints the hostname in python. import socket
   Python Documentation         

SORT Command that sorts input.            

Sort-Object Used to sort objects in PowerShell.   TechNet         

spanning-tree cost

syntax: spanning-tree cost (value 1-200,000,000)

split Split can separate files while cat can merge files.   YouTube         

ssh -p (port number between 1025 and 65536) (username@server ip address) Linux SSH login.            

standard error 2>            

standard input Comes from the keyboard by default. 0< (Shorthand: <)            

standard output Goes to the display by default. 1> (Shorthand: >)            

START Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.            

Start-Process powershell -Verb runAs Start PowerShell as Administrator.   StackOverflow         

Stop-Process  Introduced with PowerShell version 1.0.  TechNet         

Structured Query Language (SQL) Special programming language made for databases. Not case sensitive but best practice is to write commands in all-caps.   Wikipedia  W3Schools  Khan Academy     

SUBST DOS command that associates a path with a drive letter.            

substitute user (su) Execute a command as another user.            

sudo    Website         

SYS    Wikipedia         

Système International (SI) (aka: International System of Units or metric system)   Wikipedia         

systeminfo Command that displays the system information of a Windows based system.            

tail Command that displays the end of a file. (head shows the beginning.) For example tail -f /var/log/messages can be used with the -follow switch to see syslog messages and print new data as the file grows.   Wikipedia  YouTube  Linux 101 Hacks     

tar (tape archive) Both a file format and a program. Example:

tar -zxvf
 Introduced with version 7 UNIX in 1979.  Wikipedia         

tee Outputs to a file and writes to standard output.   Wikipedia         

terminal length Used in conjunction with another command to specify number of lines displayed in terminal.            

test Builtin utility for Bash. Brackets [ ] can be put around what is being tested instead.            

Test-Path PowerShell cmdlet.            

time Used to determine the duration of execution for a particular command.   Wikipedia         

time Command that displays or sets the system time. Use date for UNIX-based systems or clock set/show clock for IOS.   Wikipedia         

title Command that sets the window title for a CMD.EXE session.            

traceroute Network Command-line utility that displays the path (route) and measures the delay of packets. Traces packets to a destination address for troubleshoot issues. UNIX-like systems use traceroute, while Windows-based systems use the shorter tracert.   Wikipedia         

tracert Windows version of the traceroute command. Use traceroute for UNIX based systems.   Wikipedia         

translate (tr) Replace or remove specific characters in its input data set.   Man Page  Wikipedia       

tree Command to graphically display the directory structure of a drive or path.   Wikipedia         

type Shell builtin. Command that describes how its arguments would be interpreted if used as command names. Added to the Bourne Shell in 1984.  Wikipedia (UNIX)         

TYPE Command that displays the contents of a text file.   Wikipedia (DOS)         

uname Unix command to display the name and version of the computer. Use ver or winveron Windows.            

uptime The amount of time a computer has been on since the last reboot. Can be viewed on UNIX-like systems with the uptime command. Use wmic os get lastbootuptime (written as: yyyymmddhhmmss.nnn) for Windows.   Wikipedia         

useradd Bash command to add a user account.   Linuxers         

VALUES Used with INSERT INTO to tell the DBMS what to insert.   Wikipedia  Wikipedia       

variable Named memory location that stores the current value of a data type. Can be integer, real number, string, or Boolean. Shell Examples:

Bash VARIABLE=value echo $VARIABLE
tcsh set VARIABLE = value echo $VARIABLE
PowerShell $VARIABLE = value Write-Output $VARIABLE

vcgencmd measure_temp Show raspberry pi temprature.            

ver DOS command used in to displays the OS version. Use uname on UNIX.   Wikipedia         

verify Command Prompt command that tells Windows whether to verify that your files are written.            

vi Text editor that is standard in most UNIX based operating systems. vi comes from the visual mode in the ex text editor.   YouTube  Linux Command       

virsh Command line tool for managing guests and the hypervisor.   CentOS Docs  Oracle Documentation       

visudo Configure root privileges            

vol Displays a disk volume label and serial number in DOS.            

Wildcard mask The inverse of a subnet mask. - subnet mask = wildcard address ( wildcard for a subnet). When configured with the network command in EIGRP, it is used to exclude some interfaces from the EIGRP process. Minimize load cost and SPF calculations in OSPF.             

Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC) Command line version of WMI.   Wikipedia         

winver Displays the Windows version.   Wikipedia         

Write-Debug PowerShell cmdlet.            

Write-Error PowerShell cmdlet.            

Write-Host PowerShell cmdlet.            

Write-Information PowerShell cmdlet.            

Write-Output PowerShell cmdlet.            

Write-Progress PowerShell cmdlet.            

Write-Verbose PowerShell cmdlet.            

Write-Warning PowerShell cmdlet.            

xcopy Command Prompt command that copies files and directory trees.            

yank y Copy text inside of vim.   Vim Wiki